Haber Process

  • Created by: epic indi
  • Created on: 08-05-19 12:54
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  • Haber Process
    • How does it work
      • N2 + 3H2 makes 2NH3 and heat
      • N2+3H2 makes 2NH3 and heat
        • N2 easily obtained from 78% air
        • Hydrogen comes from eacting methane with steam to form H2 and CO2
      • high temp at 450 and high pressure 200 atmospheres used
      • Reaction is reversible so reaches a dynamic equilibrium
        • Unused H2 and N2 are recycled to reduce waste
        • NH3 is produced as a gas but cools in condenser and liquefies.
    • Reversible
      • Forward reaction is exothermic
        • so increasing temp moves equilibrium wrong way.
          • Iron catalyst makes reaction go faster without affecting yield.
        • So yield is greater at lower temps.
          • but this means a slower rate of reaction.
            • 450 is a compromise between max yield and speed of reaction.
      • Higher pressure moves position of eqwuilibrium towards products. So max percentage yield.
        • So set as high as possible without being too expensive or dangerous.
    • NPK
      • Nitrogen, Phosphorous potassium
        • often missing from soil if used by previous crop
          • helps plants grow faster and bigger
      • easier than manure as have right amount of nutrients and moe available.
    • Use of NH3
      • react with nitric acid for ammonium nitrate used as fertilisers
      • NH3+HNO3 makes NH4NO3
      • ammonia ad nitric acid makes ammonium nitrate
    • Production
      • Industry
        • giant vats at high concentrations resulting in very exothermic reaction
        • Heat released used to evaporate water
          • Concentrated ammonia product
      • Lab
        • Smaller scale by titration and crystillisation
        • crystallisation is very slow
        • lower concentration as less heat produced (safer)
    • K and Ph
      • potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are mined
      • Ph is mined but insolible so plants can't directly absorb them so
        • react with nitric acid produces phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate
        • React with sulfuric acid to produce calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate
        • reacts with phosphoric acid to produce calcium phosphate


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