Group Influence 1

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Sess
  • Created on: 15-05-15 14:32
View mindmap
  • Group Influence 1
    • Definition
      • Two or more people who interact + influence one another
      • Excludes those physically together but not in a group
      • Shaw (1981)
    • Social Faciliation
      • Hinders Performance
        • There is an additional body of research that suggests that it actually hinders performance
        • Animals learn mazes slower in the presence of others
          • Allee et al (1936)
      • Zajonc's brilliance
        • Evidence in support of Zajonc's theory
          • In others' presence, students take less time to learn a simple maze than to learn a complex one alone
            • Hilary + Hunt (1973)
          • Good pool shooters in a student uniongot 71% of their shots on target while nuobserved, compaired to 80% when observed
            • Poor pool shooters got 36% when alone, 25% when observed
            • Michaels et al (1982)
        • He proposed that th epresence of others increases arousal, enhances whatever response is dominant
        • If it's an easy task, performance increases. If its a difficult task, performance decreases.
        • Zajonc's findings may have real world implications for offices.
          • They may use open plan for simple tasks but provide offices when it a more complex task
      • Virtual People
        • Park + Catrambere (2007)
        • They got ppts to do anagrams, mazes, maths on a computer with a virtual human watching them from another computer
        • When the task was easy, performance increased but decreased for complex tasks
      • Proposed Explanation
        • Distractions
          • We wonder what others think of our performance so we get distracted and the conflict overloads our cognitive systems causing arousal
          • Sanders et al (1986)
        • Observers make us nervous as we do not know how they are evaluating us
        • He blindfolded observers. Just their mere presence did not boost ppt's performance on simple tasks
        • Cotrell (1968)
      • The mere presence of others facilitates performance
        • Those that do not compete, reward or punish but are simply there
        • Triplett (1898)
      • The first controlled social psych lab experiment was conducted into this
      • Children were told to wind string round a fishing rod
        • They worked faster in the presence of others than alone
        • Triplett (1898)
        • This experiment did not reach statistical significance however.
          • Strube (2005)
          • But! Many other studies found an effect, not just in humans
            • Ants excavate faster in the presence of others
              • Allport (1920)
            • Chicken eat more grain in the presence of others
              • Dashiell (1930)
    • Social Loafing
      • Possible Explanations
        • Being in a group reduces evaluation apprehension
          • Individuals believed they were being evaluated when alone
          • Karau + Williams (1993)
        • Assembly line workers produced 16% more product when their individual output is measured, even when pay is not affected
          • Fauller + Williams (1996)
        • Uni swim team members swam faster in relays if their individual times were read out
          • Williams et al (1989)
      • Evidence Against
        • If the goal is very compelling eg. a championship, everyone puts their all in.
          • Karau + Williams (1993)
        • This occurs if there is a belief that their efforts will be rewarded or if their sense of self depends on group success
      • People put in less effort when in a group if they are not individually accountable for their work.
        • Ringleman (1900s)
      • Ppts were asked to be blindfolded + tug a rope.
        • They pulled 18% harder when they thought they were alone compared to when they thought they were with 5 others.
        • Ingham (1974)
      • Blind-folded and headphoned people sat in a semicircle and were blasted with the sound of clapping and shouting.
        • Ppts were then told to clap alone or with those around them.
        • They produced 1/3 less noise when they thought they were doing it as a group
        • Latane et al (1979)

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Social Psychology resources »