Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals

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  • Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Lose two electrons when they react becoming 2+ ions
      • All have two electrons in outer shell
      • Lose two outer electrons to have the ideal electronic structure
    • Atomic Radius increases down the group.
      • Due to extra electron shells dpwn the group.
    • Ionisation energy decreases down the group.
      • Extra shells shield outer electrons from nuclear force of attraction.
      • Extra shells mean electrons are further away from nucleus
      • Each element down group has an extra electron shell.
    • Reactivity increases down the group.
      • Ionisation energies decrease
      • The easier it is to remove electrons, the more reactive the element.
    • Melting points decrease down the group.
      • Metalic structures - delocalised electrons in outer shell.
      • Smaller volume/charge ratio and delocalised electrons become spread out.
      • Reduced force of attraction between the sea of delocalised electrons and the positive ions.
      • Mg has lower than expected M.Pt because of the 'more open' lattice arrangement.
    • Oxidised when they react. From 0 to 2+
    • Hyrdoxides increase in solubility and sulfates decrease in soulbility down the group.
    • Barium sulfate used as barium meals in medicine - opaque to xrays and safe as it is insoluble.
    • Calcium Hydroxide - neutrilise soils
    • Magnesium hydroxide used in indegestion tablets.
    • Test for sulfate ions.
      • Acidified BaCl2 added to solution.
      • If sulfate ions are present white precipitate of barium sulfate is formed.
  • Metalic structures - delocalised electrons in outer shell.
  • Smaller volume/charge ratio and delocalised electrons become spread out.
  • Reduced force of attraction between the sea of delocalised electrons and the positive ions.

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