Group 1 Elements (Lithium, Sodium & Potassium)

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  • Group 1 Elements (Lithium, Sodium, Potassium)
    • Physical Properties
      • Good conductors of electricity & heat.
      • Soft & can easily be cut with a knife.
      • Low melting & boiling points compared with other metals such as iron and copper.
      • Low densities (float on water).
    • Chemical Properties
      • Shiny surfaces when freshly cut with a knife.
        • Surface quickly become dull as the metal reacts with oxygen in the air.
      • Burn in air or oxygen to form white, solid oxides.
        • 2M+O2--> M2O, where M= Li, Na or K
      • React vigorously with water to give an alkaline solution of the metal hydroxide as well as hydrogen gas.
        • 2M+2H20--> 2MOH+H2, where M= Li Na or K
        • Observations when added to water
          • Lithium
            • Moves around surface of water.
            • Hissing sound.
            • Bubbles of gas.
            • Gets smaller and smaller; eventually disappears.
          • Sodium
            • Moves around surface of water.
            • Hissing sound.
            • Bubbles of gas.
            • Melts into a shiny ball.
            • Gets smaller and smaller; eventually disappears.
          • Potassium
            • Moves around the surface of the water.
            • Hissing sound.
            • Bubbles of gas.
            • Melts into a shiny ball.
            • Burns with a lilac-coloured flame.
            • Gets smaller and smaller; eventually disappears.
      • Order of reactivity: potassium > sodium > lithium.
        • The further you go down the group, the more reactive the metals become.
    • Electronic Configuration
      • Lithium
        • 2.1
      • Sodium
        • 2.8.1
      • Potassium
        • 2.8.8.1
      • When the elements react, they lose the outer-shell electron.
        • The more reactive the metal is, the less energy is required to remove the outer-shell electron.
    • Stored under oil to prevent them from reacting with oxygen or water.
  • 2M+O2--> M2O, where M= Li, Na or K

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