Group 1 elements

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  • Group 1 - Alkali Metals
    • As you go DOWN Group 1:
      • The elements become more reactive because the outer electron is more easily lost, because it's further from the nucleus.
      • The elements have lower melting and boiling points.
    • The Alkali metals have low density.
      • Lithium, Sodium and Potassium are less dense than water.
    • Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium and Francium.
    • All elements in Group 1 have only 1 outer electron.
    • They form ionic compounds with non-metals:
      • Keen to lose their one outer electron to form a 1+ ion
      • Will not form a covalent bond!
      • They always form ionic bonds and produce white compounds that dissolve in water to form colourless solutions.
    • Reactions with water produce hydrogen gas
      • When Lithium, Sodium and Potassium are put in water , they react very vigorously
        • They float and move around the surface, fizzing furiously.
      • Potassium gets hot enough to ignite it A lit splint will indicate hydrogen by producing a squeak sound as the H2 ignites
      • They form hydroxides that dissolves in water to give alkaline solutions. They turn the colour of the universal indicator to purple.

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