Group 2

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  • Group 2, the Alkali Earth Metals
    • Properties and trends
      • Atomic radius increase down the group
        • Extra shells are added down group
        • All elctronic confugration ends in s2
      • Ionisation energy decreases down the group
        • Extra shells are added and shielding increases
        • Less energy needed to remove the outer electrons-further away from the nucleus
        • Attraction between valence electrons and nucleus decreases down group
      • Melting point decreases down the group
        • Metallic structure
        • +ve ions become less attracted to the -ve delocalised electrons as the distance between them decreases
        • Size of the metal ion increases
        • Attraction becomes weaker down the group as the size increases
      • Solubility
        • Sulfates
          • Decrease in solubility down group
        • Hydroxides
          • Increase in solubility down group
    • Reaction with water
      • React to form metal hydroxides
      • Magnesium reacts slowly with cold water but better with steam
        • Reacts with steam to form magnesium oxide
      • Reactivity increases due to the outer electron able to be lost more easily down group
    • Test for sulfates
      • 1.Add HCl to the sample solution
        • Removes carbonate ions which may give a false positive result
      • 2.Add barium chloride
      • Sulfates are present if a white ppt is formed
        • white ppt is barium sulfate, which is insoluble
    • Neutralisation
      • Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime)
        • Neturalises acidic soils
      • Magnesium hydroxide
        • Used to neutralise excess stomach acid
    • Barium meals
      • Barium sulfate used due to its insolubility
      • Used to observe a GI tract


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