Group 1 elements - Alkali Metals

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  • Group 1 - Alkali metals
    • Reactive soft metals
      • Low density (float)
    • Have 1 electron in outer shell
      • Reactive
        • Little energy needed to overcome bonds
      • Form ion1+ (ionic compound)
        • white solid that dissolves in water to form colourless solution
      • Similar properties
    • As you go down group:
      • More reactive (more shells, more distance between electrons & nucleus, less attraction, electrons easier lost)
        • Lower BP / MP
        • Higher relative atomic mass
    • React vigoroursly with water
      • Alkali metal + water --> metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas
        • Sodium + water --> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
      • more reactive alkali's react more violently, producing more energy
        • Further down group - more energy produced
    • React vigorously heated with chlorine gas
      • Alkali metal + chlorine gas --> metal chloride salt
        • Sodium + chlorine --> sodium chloride
    • Alkali metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides
      • LIthium + oxygen --> lithium oxide
      • Sodium + oxygen --> mixture of sodium oxide + sodium peroxide
      • Potassium + oxygen --> mixture of potassium + potassium superoxide
    • More reactive than transition metals. react more vigorously. Less dense, strong, hard. Lower MP / BP

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