Grammatical Development

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  • Grammatical language development
    • Single word stage (1)
      • 12 - 18 months
      • single word utterances
      • group of words learned as a single unit e.g allgone
      • naming function
      • holophrases
        • single words with more complex messages
        • situation, gestures, & intonation helps parent understand
        • more complex construction
        • understanding is more advanced
        • understand more unusual requests
      • respond to 2 word instructions
    • Two word stage (2)
      • 18 months
      • 2 words - grammatically correct order
      • omission
        • repeats adult but omits words
        • words retained in correct grammatical order
        • focus on key words
        • express a range of complex meanings
      • Bloom 1973
        • same sentence used to express different meanings
      • ambiguity
        • some two word utterances arise partly because inflectional affixes are abesnt
          • 's' - plural / possession
          • 'ed' verb ending - past tense
    • Telegraphic stage (3)
      • about 2
      • 3 - 4 word utterances
      • some are grammatically complete
        • subject + verb + object
        • subject + verb + complement
        • subject + verb + adjective
      • use key words and omit others
        • determiners
        • auxiliary verbs
        • prepositions
      • rapid progress
        • wider range of structures
          • simple statements
          • questions
          • commands
        • age 3 - previously omitted words are used
        • more than 1 clause
        • co-ordinating conjunctions
      • inflectional affixes
        • gradually acquired
        • age 5 - know basic grammatical rules but not all mastered
    • Acquisition of inflections (4)
      • predictable pattern
        • 'ed' and 'ing' word endings
      • functional words
        • determiners 'a' and 'the'
      • auxiliary verbs acquired in a regular order
      • Brown 1973
        • studied children's language development between 20 months and 36 months
        • sequence occurred regularly
        • 1 - 'ing'
        • 2 - plural 's'
        • 3 - possessive 's'
        • 4 - 'the' 'a'
        • 5 - past tense 'ed'
        • 6 - 3rd person singular verb ending 's'
        • 7 - auxiliary 'be'
      • Cruttenden 1979
        • divided acquisiton of inflections into 3 stages
        • 1 - unanalysed use
          • memorise words on individual basis
          • no regard for general principles/rules
        • 2 - awareness of general principles
          • apply regular endings to words which require irregular inflections
          • observe plural nouns end in 's'
          • overgeneralisation
        • 3 - correct inflections used, including irregulars
    • Understandin-g grammatical rules (5)
      • Berko 1985
        • proved children learn rules
        • pictures of fictional characters called 'wugs'
        • showed children a picture of 1 and said 'this is a wug'
        • showed children a picture of 2 and said 'what are these?'
        • children 3 - 4 said 'wugs'
          • applied rule that plurals usually end in 's'
        • children 2 1/2 - 5 overgeneralise
    • Questions (6)
      • acquire skill of asking questions in 3 stages
      • 1 - rely on intonation alone
        • understand how tone of voice of voice indicates a question
      • 2 - 2nd - question words
        • 1st - 'what' and 'where'
        • 2nd - 'why', 'how' and 'who'
      • 3 - 3rd year - auxiliary verbs
        • reverse order of subject + verb
        • 'wh' words not always inverted correctly
    • Negation
      • 1 - single dependence on words 'no' and 'not'
      • 2 - 3rd year - 'don't' and 'can't' - before subject and after verb
      • 3 - more negative forms - 'didn't' 'isn't' - negative constructions used more accurately

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