Grammar

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  • GRAMMAR
    • System of rules governing how words and sentences are constructed
    • Morphology
      • Structure of words
      • Many words are made up of two or more meaning elements called morphemes
        • e.g. 'train' is a morpheme
        • the 's' on 'trains' is a morpheme as it changes the meaning
      • Words that have more than one morpheme usually consist of a root word and one or more affixes
        • Root word - word to add affix to
        • Affix - prefix/suffix - before/after
        • e.g. 'necessary' is toot word 'unnecessary' 'un' is prefix (before)
    • Syntax
      • Structure of sentences
      • Word classes (8 main ones)
        • Noun - naming word
        • Verb - doing word
        • Adverb - describes verb
        • Adjective - describes noun
        • Pronoun - takes place of noun
        • Conjunctions - connecting words
        • Prepositions - define relationships
        • Determiners - specific information about a noun
      • Co-ordinating conjunctions - make compound sentences
      • Subordinating conjunctions - create subordinate clauses (complex sentences)
      • Preposition - define relationship between words e.g. underneath, through, on, under
      • A sentence is a group of words that make sense on their own
    • Sentence types
      • SIMPLE
        • Subject + verb
      • COMPOUND
        • Two or more simple sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction that make sense on their own
      • COMPLEX
        • Two simple sentences with a main clause and subordinating clause
        • Main clause will make sense on its own, subordinate clause wont
      • MINOR
        • Complete and meaningful
        • Don't have a subject or a verb
    • Sentence functions
      • Interrogative - question
      • Declarative - statement
      • Exclamative - exclamations
      • Imperatives- command
    • Auxilary verbs
      • 'helper' verbs
      • Work in a sentence to change the tense, mood, or voice of another verb
      • be, do, have
      • Modal verbs work as auxiliary verbs - can, could, might, must, should, will, would

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