Grammar Year 1 Uni

  • Created by: izzygmcc
  • Created on: 04-04-19 15:20
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  • Spanish Grammar Yr 1
    • Ser/ Estar
      • SER: Description, Occupation, Characteristic Time, Origin, Relationship
        • Informing about something, who or what something is
      • ESTAR: Position, Location, Action, Condition, Emotion
        • Informing on the condition of something, temporary
    • Subject/ Reflexive+ Object Pronouns
      • SUBJECT: Yo/ mí, Tú/ Ti, Ello/ Ella/ Él, Ellos/ Ellas, Nosotros, Vosotros Usted, Ustedes
        • Emphasise, Clarify and to show respect (USTED (ES))
      • REFLEXIVE: me, te, se, nos, os, se, mí, conmigo, tí, vos, contigo, usted, sí, consigo, nosotros
        • Used to indicate actions done to oneself
      • DIRECT OBJECT: lo, los, las, la
        • Compliment thee meaning of the verb. What the verb directly applies to
      • INDIRECT OBJECT: Me, Te, Le, Nos, Os, Les
        • Refer to who is being affected by the action which is being carried out
    • Possessive Adj.+ Pronouns
    • Prepositions
      • They appear only immediately before noun phrases and should not be avoided like they are in English
      • a- to, at, ante, delante de - in front of, faced with, bajo, debajo de - beneath, underneath, cabe- next to, con- with, contra- against, de- of, from, desde- from, durante- during, en- in, on, at, entre- between,, among, hacia- towards, hasta- until, as far, as, mediante- by means of, para +por- for, because of, según- according to, sin- without, sobre- over, on, about, tras, detrás de- after, behind
    • Present+ Gerund
      • AR- o, as, a, amos, áis, an, ER- o, es, e, emos,éis, en, IR- o, es, e, imos, ís, en
      • ESTAR+ iendo/ ando
      • Irregulars 1st person: -GUIR-> GO, GER-> JO, GIR-> JO, AER-> AIGO, CIR-> ZCO
    • Past Tenses
      • Preterite
        • ENDINGS: AR- é, aste, ó, amos, asteis, aron, ER/IR- í, iste, ió, imos,isteis, ieron
        • An action that occurred within the past and is finished. COMPLETED EVENTS, BEGINNINGS AND ENDINGS, SPECIFIC TIMES AND DATES, SEQUENCED EVENTS
        • IRREGULAR 1ST PERSON: CAR-> QUÉ, ZAR-> CÉ, GAR-> GUÉ
        • IRREGULAR STEM:           J STEM: TRAER DECIR CONDUCIR TRADUCIR PRODUCIR
        • IRREGULAR STEM: U STEM:  ESTAR PODER PONER SABER TENER OBTENER
        • IRREGULAR STEM: I STEM: QUERER VENIR HACER VER DAR
      • Imperfect
        • This tense tells us how things once were/ used to be/ were going to be over a period of time. habitual/ describing something
        • ENDINGS: AR- aba, abas, aba, abamos, abais, aban, ER/IR- ía,ías,ía,íamos,íais,ían
        • Irregulars: IR, SER, VER
        • HABITUAL/ REPEATED ACTIONS/ IN PROGRESS IN THE PAST/ TIMES AND DATES/ AGE/ CONDITIONS/ EMOTIONS OF THE PAST
      • Present Perfect
        • Expresses close/ recent past actions
        • He, Has, Ha, Hemos, Habeis, Han+ Past Participles
        • Most ending in IR, add -YENDO, Creer- Creido
      • Pluperfect
        • Expresses a completed action in the past that occurs before another action
        • Había, Habías, Había, Habíamos, Habíais, Habían + Past Participles
    • Future+ Conditional
      • CONDITIONAL: Inf.  and add ía, ías, ía, íamos,íais,ían
      • FUTURE: Inf., and add é, ás, á, emos éis, án
      • There are some irregular stems:   Tener-> Tend, Venir-> Vendr Poner-> Pondr, Poder-> Podr, Saber-> Sabr, Decir-> Dir, Querer-> Querr, Haber-> Habr, Hacer-> Har, Caber-> Cabr, Valer-> Valdr, Salir-> Saldr
    • Passive Voice
      • Remember that this is a tense used a lot English and used little in Spanish
      • Use this: the agent is unknown, leave out the agent carrying out the action, written language, appears most frequently in the past and future
      • Conjugation of SER + Past Participle and if an agent is included, use POR+
      • Avoiding the passive: Se+ third person conj, Use 'tu' form and the te pronoun, Use 'uno' and third person or use third person plural
    • Relative pronouns
      • QUE
        • Refers to people, animals, things, ideas or events
        • Functions as the subject of the clause
        • Functions as the object of the clause
        • THAT, WHO, WHOM
      • QUIEN
        • Antecedent of a person
        • The subject of a verb
        • The object of the verb
        • WHO, WHOM
      • EL/ LA/ LOS/ LAS QUE O EL/ LA/ LOS/LAS CUAL(ES)
        • Subject of the verb
        • Object of the verb
        • in a clause that has two antecedents
        • THAT, WHO, WHOM
      • LO QUE/ LO CUAL
        • Neuter Phrases
        • Refers to ideas
        • Often used more in writing than speech
        • The idea of doing something
        • THAT, WHO, WHOM
      • CUYO/ A/ OS/ AS
        • Refers to persons or things
        • WHOSE
    • Imperative
      • This is the command tense, used to give orders, instructions and guidelines
      • You (POLITE) USTED' +Present (yo), remove 'o' add 'a' to ER/IR, add 'e' to AR. -add 'no' before +
      • You all polite (ustedes), +same as USTED add 'n' to end of verb, - add no before+
      • You (informal) tú- +Present 3rd person, - tú form of SUBJ
      • You all (informal) vosotros- +remove 'R' add 'd, -vosotros subj. form
      • Lets... 'Nosotros' +Present yo, remove 'o' add 'emos' to AR and amos to ER/IR. -add 'no' before affirmative
      • Irregulars: USTED    GAR-> GUE GER-> JA GIR-> JA GUIR-> GA CER ->ZA CIR-> ZA CAR->QUE ZAR-> CE
      • Irregulars Tú DECIR-> DI HACER-> HAZ IR-> VE PONER-> PON, SALIR-> SAL, SER-> SÉ TENER-> TEN, VENIR-> VEN
    • Subjunctive
      • Noun Clauses
        • Apply the WEIRDO acronym
        • This clause is when you can apply a what as a question
        • WISH, EMOTION, IMPERSONAL CLAUSE, REQUEST, DESIRE, OJALA
      • Adjectival Clauses
        • Refers to the antecedent, if you can put any before the noun, use the subj
        • The antecedent in the speaker/ writers mind is vague
      • Adverbial Clause
        • Always subj. with a menos que, a no ser que- unless, antes de que- before, como si- as if, cpn tal de que, siempre y cuando- provided that, as long as , el hecho de que, the fact that, en caso de que- in case that, para que, a fin de que- in order that, sin que- without
        • Sometimes use the subjunctive with: a pesar de que- despite, in spite of, acaso, tal vez, quizá- perhaps, así que, así como- such that, aunque- although, cuando- when, de modo que, de manera que- in such a way that, después de que, luego que- after, hasta que- until, mientras- while, por más que, por mucho que- no matter how much, siempre que- as long as, tan pronto como, en cuanto- as soon as, una vez que- once you have
        • It is all about whether doubt is a factor, or it being unreal, in anticipation. It is a temporal point of reference.
      • Contrary to the fact
        • Must recognise whether it is a cause and effect statement or a hypothetical
        • Cause and effect are present and future, Hypothetical use subjunctive and conditional
      • PRESENT Conjugation: 'yo' in present, remove 'o', add AR- e, es, e, emos, éis, en. ER/IR- a, as, a ,amos, áis, an
      • PAST PERFECT Conjugation: Subj of haber (Haya, Hayas, Haya, Hayamos, Hayáis, Hayan +P.P.
      • PAST IMPERFECT Conjugation: They preterite form and remove ron, add -AR ra, ras, ra, ramos, rais, ran OR se, ses, se, semos, seis, sen
      • PLUPERFECT Conjugation: Take the Imp. Subj. of Haber and add P.P. Hubiera, Hubieras, Hubiera, Hubieéramos, Hubierais, Hubieran

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