Oceans Governance

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  • Governance of Oceans
    • Territorial Waters
      • Up to 3 nautical miles
      • Country has control over all activities.
    • Contiguous Zone
      • Up to 12 nautical miles
      • Country has sovereignty and legal rights e.g. customs and waste disposal rules
    • Exclusive economic zone (EEZ)/ Exclusive fishing zone
      • Up to 200 nautical miles
      • Country has right to control sea bed and water resources but sharing is allowed in some situations
      • All countries can sail or fly over this area
      • European region more complex with issues surrounding fishing unresolved
    • High Seas
      • 200 nautical miles + from coast
      • Outside the sovereignty and legal rights of a single country
      • Certain international agreements apply
    • UNCLOS
      • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
      • Agreement that attempts to define the rights and responsibilities of countries with regard to the coastal zone.
      • Landlocked countries are given free right of access to seas.
      • Difficult to establish boundaries and countries like to try and stretch their limits as much as possible.
        • e.g. The UK and the island of Rockall
      • Not covered by UNCLOS is: - Ocean acidification, fishing in deep oceans and regulation of underwater noise
    • Global Commons
      • Resources that are seen as belonging to all such as the ocean and the atmosphere
    • International Seabed Authority
      • Created by the UN in order to oversee exploitation of sea-bed resources.
      • Some things are included that are not included in UNCLOS because they hadn't been discovered yet.

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