Gorbachev and Yeltsin

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  • Gorbachev and Yeltsin
    • Gorbachev
      • Perestroika
        • Rationalisation led to a decline in economic growth. Undermining faith in party. Initiated more radical reform
        • Glasnost exposed crimes of Soviet government. Led to profound loss in faith of the system. Other parties could now gain citizens faith.
        • Gorbachev abandoned essential themes of communism, weakened Union, opened up power base to national parties.
        • In 1985 reform was not necessary. Union was in decline not crisis. Dissidents eliminated, support for conservative ideals in party. Reformed in spite of no pressure.
        • Gorbachev reforms created crisis and further reforms that broke Union
        • Gorbachev was prepared to support radical reforms as time went on
        • Gorbachev was prepared to abandon essential features of Communism, features that held the union together
      • New Thinking New Vocabulary
        • New thinking based on new language of politics, this helped erode the union
        • Gorbachev used Perestroika instead of reform as it implied scientific restructuring for efficiency. Reform was associated with failure of Khruschev
        • Introduced words that previously had negative connotations. Introduced 'socialist pluralism / market' to imply it could be compatible
        • Glasnost - Openness
        • Perestroika - Reconstructuring
        • Uskorenie - Acceleration
      • Westernising
        • Reorientated soviet politics towards west and Europe as it could make socialism humane.
        • Endorsed Western values; human rights, releasing dissidents, less travel restrictions, stopped jamming western media.
          • Embraced Pluralism; multi party politics, citizens groups, legalised parties, communist party lost right to leading role in society.
        • Renounced violence; 'genuine democracy, 'peoples power reborn', commitment weakened party that held the union together
      • Gorbachevs Mistakes
        • Gorbachev used perestroika in hope of revival. Instead it created crisis Soviet could not recover from.
        • Gorbachev failed to anticipate effects of Glasnost. Undermined claims of Communist Party. Failed to see fragility of commitment to soviet union. (He believes communist party propaganda)
        • He made policy mistakes that undermined his position. Embraced democracy but refused to stand for election. Set competing goals, inconsistent policies.
          • Inconsistent in approach to communist party, swapped sides of party. Shifted plans without any time to develop. Undermined economy
        • Failed to win over support of Communist Party. Only authority strong enough to introduce reform, however party resisted reform, hampering Gorbachev
        • Gorbachev was meant to hold Union together but mistakes weakened it.
      • Gorbachev and China
        • Both communist regimes embarked on reform in the 1980's. Soviet reform led to the fall of communism. Chinese communism grew stronger
        • China embraced market reform more quickly and comprehensively. Chinas economy continued to grow, therefore Communist Party kept authority. (Gorbachev reforms were slow and inconsistent, mixing markets failed and created crisis and dissatisfaction)
        • Chinese Communist Party was more flexible than soviet. Therefore economic reforms had support, in contrast most communist were committed to command economy
        • China introduced economic reform without increasing political freedom. China remained politically stable.
    • Yeltsin
      • Popular Radical
        • Pro Plurality, equality, anti corruption. publicly attacked hardliner, kicked as leader of Moscow communist party
          • Attacked conservative party members live on broadcast
        • Became popular with soviet people who disliked privilege, low and mid ranking officials looking to improve careers through democracy.
          • Won 89% of vote in Moscow, formed opposition party
      • 1990
        • Yeltsin became chair of Russian new parliament. Declaration of Russian > Soviet Laws, established Russian army, built Russian President
          • Helped cause for independence, publicly resigned from communist party, gained mass support, after this party members dropped by 4 million
            • Russians saw Yeltsin as one of their own, followed path of reform and democracy, where Gorbachev backed out
      • Nationalism
        • Yeltsin encouraged and embraced nationalism and called for independence. began to speak on behalf of Russian
        • Yeltsin consolidated power by becoming president, status in gov rivalled Gorbachev, travelled to want to be independent state.
      • New Elite
        • Communist part never a united group. Divisions between low vs high
          • Yeltsin had large popularity which undermined the system
        • Champion of low ranking members, replaced old with young
        • 1985-91 230 ministers under gorb 9 remained
      • The coup and Counter coup
        • Plan to remove union and party may have taken years. However due to coup Yetlin grabbed opportunity
        • Dealing of coup was successful., counter coup removed party. authority and Gorbachev leading power in Yeltsin hands
        • Took control; suspended, banned, exposed party corruption, took resources.
        • As he attacked party this weakened union rule
      • The Union
        • Yeltsin could have saved Union chose not too, could have negotiated, Gorbachev lacked power
        • Yeltsin backed commonwealth and independence
        • This was to defeat Gorbachev and sustain stable Russian economy, restructure of Russia alone was easier than Union
          • Met leaders behind Gorbachev back, made commonwealth to stop union growth
        • Convinced soldiers to take order from him not communist party


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