1.4.3 Glycolysis

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  • Created by: JTY3
  • Created on: 19-04-16 18:28
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  • Glycolysis
    • Stage 1: Phosphorylation
      • i. 1 ATP molecule is hydrolysed and the phosphate group is released and added to the glucose at C-6
        • ii. Glucose-6-P is changed to Fructose 6-P
          • iii. Another ATP is hydrolysed and the phosphate group is released and added to fructose-6-p at C-1
            • iv. Energy from the hydrolysed ATP molecules activates the hexose sugar to make Hexose 1, 6- Bisphosphate.
    • Stage 2: Splitting of hexose 1,6-bisphosphate
      • Each molecule of hexose bisphosphate is split into two molecules of triose phosphate ( 3-carbon sugar molecules each with a p group attatched)
    • Stage 3: Oxidation of triose phsophate
      • i. 2 hydrogen atoms (with their electrons) are removed from each triose phosphate
        • Involves dehydrogenase enzymes
          • Aided by coenzyme NAD - a hydrogen acceptor
        • ii. NAD combines with hydrogen atoms becoming reduced NAD
          • 2 NAD reduced per glucose
          • Two ATP are produced - substrate level phosphorylation
    • Stage 4: Conversion of triose phosphate to pyruvate
      • i. 4 enzyme-catalysed reactions convert each triose phosphate molecule to a molecule of pyruvate.
        • During this process 2 molecules of ADP are phosphorylated to two molecule of ATP( by substrate level phosphorylation)
    • Products of glycolysis
      • 4 ATP (net 2)
      • 2 reduced NAD, used to generate more ATP during oxidative phosphorylation
      • 2 pyruvate, normally actively transported into the mitochondrial matrix for the next stage of aerobic respiration. In absence of oxygen it will be converted into lactate or ethanol in the cytoplasm.


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