Globalisation

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  • Globalisation & crime
    • Glob
      • "increasing interconnections of people across national boundaries"
      • Transnational crime
        • global crim economy
          • as soc becomes >intercon, crime rates increase across nat boundaries
          • new opps for crime e.g. cyber bullying
        • supply & demand
          • rich demands drugs - poor supply - e.g. columbia
      • Global risk consciousnesss
        • Beck
          • glob has brought increase in insecur surrounding mov of people
            • e.g. asylum seekers
            • led to increase border patrol - protect country f/ perceived threat
              • moral panic about terrorists
      • Castells
        • now a global crim economy worth over £1trill/yr
          • crimes inc:
            • arms & nuc mat trafficking
            • smuggling people
            • drugs trade
      • Glob, Cap & crime
        • Taylor
          • glob has increased ineq & rising crime
          • poor turn to crime - insecur & 'rel dep'
          • rich turn to crime as opp emerge for them
            • e.g. avoid tax
      • changing crime
        • Hobbs & Dunningham
          • how crime is org & linked to eco changes caused by glob
            • indivs w/ contacts act as hub - 'lose-knit' network forms
              • indivs network w/ others seeking opps
                • can legit & illegit worlds
          • 'glocal'
            •  
              • internat links but mainly local i.e.. drug trade
                • indivs need local contacts & networks to find opps to sell their drugs
        • Glenny
          • McMafia
            • explored org crime that emerged in Russia after fall of communism
              • global market became 'deregulated'
                • nat resources prices restricted to 1/40th world price
                  • corrupt officials - buy - sell for massive profit
                    • became new Capitals
            • Cap needed to protect wealth
              • 'mafia brand' like McD's became a global franchise
    • State
      • "illegal/ dev activities perpetrated by state agencies or w/ their support"
      • McLaughlin
        • 4 cat's
          • 1) political crimes
            • corruption/ censorship
          • 2) crimes by security/ police forces
            • genocide, torture
          • 3) economic crimes
            • official violation of health & safety laws
          • 4) social & cultural crimes
            • institutional racism
      • state crime is so serious because:
        • 1) the scale of state crime
          • power of state makes large-scale crime poss
          • able to hide crimes & escape pun
          • media focus on 3rd world state crime - avoid UK & USA
        • 2) state is source of law
          • states role = def what is crime
            • manage CJ process & proscute offenders
          • state can undermine the sys of justice
          • can avoid its own harmful actions being def as crim
    • Human Rights
      • civil rights
        • e.g right to vote, privacy, ed etc
      • natural rights
        • what regard as having simply for existing e.g. rights to life, free speech
    • Green Crime
      • BB
        • crime ag env
        • global = planet - interconn
      • POMO
        • Beck
          • global risk soc
          • manufactured risks
            • caused by demand for consumer goods
              • technology, greenhouse gases, transport goods
      • "illegal crime which has an effect on the env"
      • policing this crime
        • difficult
          • very few laws governing damage to env
          • internat laws hard to put in place
        • Bhopal, India
          • > laws are shaped by Cap interests
            • developing world govs are reluctant to reg business
      • radical view
        • Bob White
          • trad crim fails too address green crime (much doesn't break trad law)
            • hard to track
          • green crim
            • "focus on harm to env"
              • to env & indivs
            • > damage isn't illegal - not crim
            • diff countries, diff laws
            • big businesses exploit resources - don't reg enough
              • rainforest - deforestation
          • 2 views of harm
            • ecocentric - shared harm - humans & env =interdep
            • anthropcentric - big business view - humans have right to exploit planet
      • types of green crime
        • primary
          • directly results f/ destruction of earth's resources e.g. deforest
        • secondary
          • flouting of rules to prev env disaster r.g. dumping toxic waste
      • EVAL
        • :(
          • grey area on def
          • focuses on harm rather than crime
            • subj & political bias (not value free)
        • :)
          • highlights link bet env & manufactured risks
          • highl interdep of man & env

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