Global Development - Globalisation

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  • Created by: Harry
  • Created on: 07-06-14 12:26
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  • Globalisation
    • Theories
      • Hyper Globalists
        • Welcome developments and suggest globalisation will eventually produce tolerant and responsible world citizens
      • Pessimistic Globalists
        • Seabrook - argue that globalisation is a negative phenomenon - a form of Western Imperialism; superficial homogenous mass form of culture and consumption
      • Traditionalists
        • Globalisation isn't occurring, an exaggerated phenomenon that is a myth, capitalism has been an international phenomenon for years
      • Transformationalists
        • Take middle ground, foolish to reject the concept of globalisation,but the impact has been exaggerated and the process can be reversed            
    • Causes
      • Technological Innovation; Increased Social Relations, Developments in ICT, Transport Tech + Phone Developments. Mcluhan: We live in a 'Global Village'; communicating instantaneously with a person on the other side of the world is possible.
      • Economic Markets + Production; Trade Regs Reduced, Cultural Goods and Trade Increased, Transport of Goods increased and International Division of Labour.
      • Increased Cultural Relations; Internet and Search Engines, Social Networks, Transportation, World Events and Increased Tourism.
      • Increased Social Problems; Deforestation, Acid Rain, Pandemics, Crime Increase, Drug Trafficking, Global Warming and Social Disorder
    • Effects
      • Economic Impacts; Diffusion of Production, Dislocation of Produces from Nations, Codependency
      • Sociocultural Impacts; Diversification, Homogeneity
      • Political Impacts; Growth of Governmental Agencies, Reshaped Decision Making, Power Devolved from Governments to Individuals.
    • Positive Aspects
      • Economic
        • Globalisation has resulted in the growth of transnational corps, bringing infrastructure + well-paid jobs.
        • Increased  international trade = plethora of opportunities
        • David Dollar; Growth has surged due to free market principles = Decreased inequality
      • Politcal
        • Brings closer international Dialogue + forums for conflict resolution (United Nations).
        • Global production chains = Economic interdependence; Friedman "No two countries that both had McDonald's have fought a war".
        • Power has devolved from Government's to individuals.
      • Cultural
        • Modernisation: Emphasise globalisation is associated with 'modern ways of life' which are conducive to economic development.
        • Involves discussion and interchange between nations; 'One world' outlook, characterised by pluralism and hybridity.
        • Mind set of individuals is increasingly orientated to global affairs - further reinforce global stability.
    • Negative Aspects
      • Economic
        • George: Aggressively imposed free-market principles result in tiny producers being thrown unprotected into the turbulent marketplace = exploited.
        • George: Rich world has adopted protectionist policies = 'Playing field' tilted in favour of manufacturers from the rich world.
        • Washington Consensus in underpinned by market fundamentalism = TNC's utilise any means available to maximise profits, regardless of ethics.
      • Political
        • Chomsky: Power of elected governments eroded by those who elect them. Decisions made at global level by individuals.
        • Power is distorted to favour the rich world amongst agencies of global governance; The Bretton Woods Institutions - dollar-per-vote basis.
        • Rise of new forms of transnational crime; Opening of borders and 'shrinking' in the distance between sources of supply and demand.
      • Cultural
        • Imposition of the culture of the powerful on the rest of the world.
        • Small number of conglomerates (Disney, Fox ect) achieve monopolistic control over the world's media - Powerful Mechanism.
        • Loss of global cultural diversity. Neo-Marxist Gramsci - imposition of western ideologies allows global bourgeoisie to maintain henegomy.


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