Globalisation, migration and the environment

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  • Globalisation, the environment and migration
    • Globalisation and the environment
      • "along with economic globalisation has come the globalisation of environmental damage" Robert & Newall 2017
      • Viewing the Earth in the age of globalisation
        • Spaceship earth- henry George 1879
          • Significant when people saw the 'blue marble'
          • Encourages everyone on Earth to act as a harmonious crew working towards greater good
          • gives impression we can fix mess we've made e.g. climate change
          • doesn't account for inequality, gives illusion we are all in charge- we are not all environmental decision makers
        • Gaia hypothesis- James Lovelock (1979)
          • 'Mother earth'- humans are dependent on the earth for life and support
          • Earth is self evolving, self regulating, self sustaining
          • does not fit with Darwin's theory- cannot reproduce itself
        • Limits of growth- Malthus
          • A limit on the amount of people on earth
          • suggests globalisation should be limited to save the planet
          • what about sustainability? pessimistic
        • Cornucopian theory
          • Human technology will provide solutions to Earths environmental crisis
          • Not sustainable- not everyone can access technology
      • Impacts of globalisation
        • 1.Locality- changes land, labour and resources towards meeting the demand of the global market at the expense of the local subsistence- Newall 2017
        • 2. Migration- loss of local markets for smallholders drives migration from rural to urban residence- environmental impact increase in air pollution. 2050 double the amount of people will live in cities
        • 3.Energy-global production and distribution means massive increase in energy- bunker fuel bad fuel
        • 4.Resource depletion -unequal power relations, devastating impacts on the environment
        • 5.decreased diversity- globalisation of agricultural systems have been one of the most important causes of increase in green house gasses
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    • Anthropocene
      • distinct assemblage of things in the sedimentary record on the planet- Dalby 2018
      • Human activity is so vast and permanent that it can be picked up on geological record- Dalby 2007. Humans are changing the air and other processes of the biosphere that we live in a new geological era
      • The Biosphere is an active essential component within Earth- humans now have capacity to alter the earth system in ways that threaten the components humans depend on
      • Plastic pollution has increased massively, ocean acidification- loss of coral
      • Habitat destruction has lead to the 6th extinction Kolbert 2014
        • 2/3 of farmland has been somewhat degraded, half of wetlands have been destroyed. up to 50% of all plant and animal species most in global south will disappear by the end of the century- Steger 2017
      • Invasive species are introduced by globalisation- ecological damage
    • When did the anthropocene start
      • 1. mass farming, 10,000 years ago- increase agriculture and CO2
      • 2. Colonisation of Americas- 500years ago, reforestation due to rapid depopulation less co2, mini ice age
      • 3. industrial revolution-250 years ago, rapid increase in CO2, Climate change, chemical composition of the atmosphere
      • 4. Nuclear technology- 70 years ago, isotopes into atmosphere, coincided with population boom and plastic pollution
    • Uneven geography of carbon emissions
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