A-Level English Language: Global English

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  • Global English
    • Kachru
      • '3 Circles'
        • Inner: L1
        • Outer: L2
        • Expanding: Lingua Franca
      • Is he saying L1 is the best?
      • Inner Circle provides the rules/norms of English
        • The Outer Circle develops these norms
        • The expanding circle countries are 'norm-dependent'
    • Schneider
      • 3. Nativisation
      • 2. Exonormative Stabilisation
      • 1. Foundation
      • 4. Endonormative Stabilisation
      • 5. Differentiation
    • Future of English
      • Graddol
        • The "global elite" will be "multi-lingual"
        • English is losing momentum
      • McArthur
        • 'Circle of World Englishes'
        • "Mutually incomprehensible" forms of English
      • Ostler
        • Technology/ Printed word
        • We will be able to speak in any language
        • Immediately understood (by all)
    • American English
      • Prescriptivists/Puritans
        • 1600s
        • East Coast
      • Neologisms/ Borrowing
        • Native American
        • Mexican
          • Influenced the cowboys
            • Native American
        • Exploration
          • Lewis & Clarke
          • Discoveries
          • Headed West
      • Webster
        • 1828: Dictionary
        • Simplify/ standardise
        • e.g. "colour" became "color"

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