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  • Created on: 13-01-14 18:07
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  • Gladstone and Ireland 1
      • The Act of Union 1800 meant Ireland was under direct rule from Westminster.
      • Ireland had suffered a disastrous famine in the 1840s. The British gov. did little to help and the repeal of the corn laws actually made it worse.
      • Irish nationalism started to grow after the famine - the Fenian movement.
      • Major land problem - security of tenure a real concern.
      • The church was also a source of resentment, the established church was anglican but demanded taxes of a largely 90% catholic population. 10% of income went on this tax.
      • There were many voices calling for the Irish to manage their own affairs.
      • After the famine a group called 'young Ireland' was formed with the ambition of ending the union with England. They carried out a failed uprising in 1848.
      • The Fenian movement arose from the remains of young Ireland. They wanted to create an independant Irlenad and were prepared to use violence.
      • James Stephens and John O'Mahony were early Fenian leaders. They tended to attract lower middle class support.
      • The catholic church disliked the movement, possibly reducing numbers of peasant supporters.
    • GLADSTONE'S REFORMS 1868-73.
      • After being elected in 1868, Gladsonte stated ' my mission is to pacify Ireland' Pragmatic or moral?
        • G acknowleged the fact that the Fenian violence had shocked him into action.
      • 1. IRISH CHURCH ACT 1869.
        • this disestablished the church of ireland, meaning it was no longer linked to the state by law.
        • Irish peasants no longer had to pay a tithe to the church and the church lost about 1/4 of its wealth.
        • The act faced opp. from queen victoria and the house of lords, but gladstone's clear majority in the house of commons meant the act was passed through.
        • Helped unite and strengthen the liberal party and won Gladstone the support of the catholic church.
      • IRISH LAND ACT 1870
        • introduced the principle of fair rent, secured fixity of tenure and introduced loansto allow peasants to buy their land.
        • However the act didnt define 'fair' rent, and landlords could still evict tenants who ere behind on payments. Purchasing land was still too expensive with a loan and the act made no provision for selling of leases for fear of upsetting Whig interest.
      • COERCION ACT 1870
        • introduced as a result of unrest after the land act. This gave the police extensive powers to carry out arrests, and fuelled further resentment towards Gladstone in Ireland.
    • Home rule League in 1873, In the 1874 election, 59 home rule supporters won seats - able to voice their opinions, however they achieved little as Isaac Butt was a moderate leader, leacking the authority and charisma to discipline the party and pressurise westminister.


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