Glaciers and Rivers 

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  • Glaciers and Rivers
    • RIVERS
      • Long profile; used to describe how a river change its height along its course
        • Cross profile: an imaginary slice across the river channel and its valley at specific points
      • Erosion processes: when a river wears away at the land caused by energy change, happens in the upper course as there is the most amount of energy
        • solution: when the river flows over limestone or chalk, rock is slowly dissolved
        • abrasion: the load is carried by the river repeatedly hits the river beds or banks
        • hydraulic action: the force of water hitting the river bed and banks
      • transportation: material being transported by a river, happens in the kiddle course
        • suspension: fine, light material is carried across the river
        • traction: the large boulders rolling along the river bed
        • solution: minerals are dissolved in the water
        • saltation: small pebbles and stones bounced
      • deposition; the process if which the drops its load, happens in the lower course of the river as there is less energy carrying the load
      • landforms
        • erosion and deposition
          • meanders; bends in the river, natural. inner curve has less energy and material is deposited. outer curve has the most energy where it erodes the bank
          • ox bow lake: continued erosion on the outer bend, eventually the material gets deposited and cuts of the meander at the neck
          • flood plain: an an area of land with fine sediment
        • deposition
          • levees: the river bursts during floods and deposits material along the bank
          • estuaries: at the mouth of the river it looses energy as they meet the sea, causes them to deposit their load
        • erosion
          • waterfalls: when a river flows over a hard rock, the soft rock underneath erodes, creating a step with an overhang
          • gorges: when a waterfall has retreated upstream it leaves a steep sided valley
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