Glacial Systems & Landscapes: Glacial Landforms

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  • Glacial Landforms
    • Corries
      • Glaciers form on side of mountain peak (least sun/coldest winds) most accumulation/least ablation
        • Snow collects in hollows and becomes ice.
          • Basal sliding (rotational flow) + abrasion + plucking = hollow deepens into corrie
            • Ice thick enough flows over lip/flows downhill as glacier
    • Arete = ridge between parallel valleys
    • Pyramidal peak = 3 sided peak (3 corries form back to back)
    • U-Shaped valleys =  steep sided, flat bottom
      • Formed from the erosion of V-Shaped valley
    • Hanging valleys = tributary glaciers erode valley floor much less so glacier melts = valleys left at higher level
      • Waterfalls come from this
    • Truncated spurs = ridges of land stick out are chopped off
    • Tarns = lakes in corries
    • Roche moutonee = resitant (hard) rock mass on valley floor.
      • Upstream (stoss) side = smooth
      • Downstream (lee) side = rough
    • Moraine : particular formationsof till
      • Lateral moraine
        • Deposited at glacier sides
      • Medial moraine
        • Centre of valley where two glaciers converge
          • Two lateral moraines together
      • Terminal moraine
        • Builds up at end of glacier
    • Till = stuff glacier leaves behind - unsorted boulders, stones & clay
    • Till plain = large expanse of till
      • Formed when ice sheet melts
    • Till forms drumlins
      • Half egg shaped hills
      • 1500m long, 100m high
      • Upstream (stoss) = wide & tall
      • Downstream (lee) = narrow & low
      • Formation = till got stuck around rock or little hill sticking out into glacier
        • OR Original mound gf dropped  till got streamlined when ice readvanced
      • Drumlins form in groups e.g. Ribble  Valley, Lancashire
        • OR Drumlins under water in Clew Bay, Ireland
    • Erratics: Boulders picked up, carried long way dropped in different geology
      • E.g. Silurian rocks on top of Carboniferous limestone, Yorkshire Dales


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