Class differences in achievement- Internal factors

Discussing context and the poets intentions on the poem 'give'

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Class differences in achievement- internal factors
    • Pupils' class identities and the school
      • Habitus- refers to the dispositions or learned way of life.
      • Middle-class and working-class have a different way of life- values/norms.
      • Symbolic capital and symbolic violence: schools have a middle-class habitus- pupils form middle-class gain symbolic capital or status. Working-class seen as worthless.
    • Labelling
      • To attach a meaning or definition to someone.
      • Teachers attach labels to pupils, such as smart, thick, naughty etc.
        • Pupils' work, appearance and behaviour are key factors influencing teachers' judgement.
      • Becker (1971)- carried out interactionist study based on 60 Chicago high school teachers- found that they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the image of 'ideal pupil'.
        • Teachers saw middle-class children closest to ideal, working-class children further away.
    • Pupil subcultures
      • A group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns.
      • Lacey (1970)- Differentation: teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability and attitude. Polarisation: process of seperating.
      • Anti-school subcultures: placed in low streams, suffer a loss of self-esteem. label of failure pushes pupils to challenge the values of the school.
      • Pro-school subculture: mainly middle-class, placed in higher streams, tend to remain committed to school values. Gain status by academic success.
    • The self-fulfilling prophecy
      • A prediction that comes true.
      • Teacher labels a pupil, treats the pupil accordingly (giving them more work ect.) Pupil realises teachers expectation and acts the way the teacher predicts them to.
      • Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)- Told school that they had a new test to identify pupils who would 'spurt' ahead (test was in fact an IQ test.) Researchers tested all pupils and picked 20% at random and identified them as 'spurters'. Later found that these pupils had made progress due to how the teachers treated them.
    • Streaming
      • Involves separating children into different ability groups or classes called 'streams'.
        • Creates self-fulfilling prophecy
      • Becker-Working-class children likely to be put in lower stream, middle-class in higher stream (benefit more.)
      • Gillborn and Youdell (2001)- study shows how teachers use stereotypical ideas of ability to stream pupils.
        • Teachers less likely to see working-class and black as having an ability- placed in lower sets.
      • A-C economy-  produces educational triage: pupils who will pass anyway-left to get on with it, those with potential- helped to get C grades, hopeless cases- doomed to fail.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »