Giolitti's Reforms

Giolitti's Reforms: Economic, Social, Key Groups and Electoral Reforms

  • Created by: shanies
  • Created on: 02-11-12 21:22
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  • Giolitti's Reforms
    • major expansion of industry
      • Real wages rose by 25% between 1890-1913
    • social reforms
      • laws controlling female and child labour
      • establishment of social insurance and pensions schemes
      • tried to make the state more neutral in industrial disputes, instead of automatically using its power against workers
        • this shift in approach failed to satisfy the unions, and the growth of socialism continued
        • Giolittis policy worried some industrialists who feared that the Liberal govt would no longer defend their interests. to them a neutral govt appeared to be a govt on the side of the workers
      • his attempts at social reform were to some extent undermined by the fact that he used the methods of the traditional corrupt politicians TRASFORMISMO
    • electoral reforms
      • the franchise  was extended to all males aged over 30+
    • winning the key groups
      • Giolittis aim of bringing all groups together was fine in theory, but did not work in practice ('absorb' them)
      • fell back on the old policy of foreign expansion to win support: gave way to nationalist pressure and in 1911 attacked Libya,then ruled Turkey
        • many ordinary Italians resented the war. they were conscripted to fight in a conflict they did not understand, and paid for in through increased taxation
          • may have reduced criticisms from the nationalist Right, but it strengthened criticisms from Socialists and Catholics
    • increase in the number of civil servants and other professional groups
      • joined PETTY BOURGEOISIE who were increasing as the economy developed
        • some of these groups were concerned about the dangers of Socialism, the power of business, and the weakness of the govt
    • 'Red Week'
      • 1914 saw the worst outbreak of mass unrest since 1898. riots and demonstration/ some radicals seized control of govt buildings
    • his policy of never interfering in strikes and leaving violent demonstration's undisturbed at first proved successful
    • compared before Giolitti (tensions and upheavals) Giolitti era for most part relatively stable
    • economic reforms (economic progress had been rapid)
      • national military service and introduction of free primary education has helped to create a greater sense of Italian nationhood
      • national income rising from 61BN lira in 1895 to 92BN lira 1915/ increase in foreign trade in the 50yrs up to 1913
      • taxes on food had been reduced/ Liberal govts had spent money to improves roads, railways and the supply of drinking water (national economy)
  • Real wages rose by 25% between 1890-1913
  • laws controlling female and child labour


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