After a guilty verdict

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 29-05-14 11:33
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  • Gillis & Nafekh - The impact of community based employment of offender reintegration
    • Aim: To investigate recidivism rates of a community base employment scheme
    • Sample: Offenders released between Jan 1998 - Jan 2005.
      • 23,525 individuals. 95% male and the remaining female.
    • Method: Content ananlysisof data from Canadas offender management system.
      • Match pairs design.
        • Divided into those who were employed prior to release and those who weren't. Then match paired into gender, risk level, substance abuse, emotional orientation, release year, sentence length, family relations, community function and attitudes
    • Results: The average time for the whole sample to grt employed was 6 months for men and 10 months for women on the outside world.
      • Those who were employee prior to there release were more likely to remain on condition release than those who weren't.
        • the mean time to return was also longer for this group. 37 month versus 11 months. 70% of the employed stayed on condition release in comparison to 55% unemployed.
    • Conclusion: Having a strong sample and method help the findings to be generalised
      • Employment based programmes play an imporatant role in the last few months of a offenders sentence. Helping to give them skills will enable them to function better in the outside world and will decrease the chances of them re-offending.
    • Relating Study: Azjen's Theory. If the prisoner feels like they will have control on the outside world then they will be less likely to re - offend
  • Dooley - unnatural deaths in prsion
    • Aim: To investigate all unnautural deaths that occur in prisons in England and Wales etween 1972-1987
    • Research: Most deaths occur at night from hanging. Although action is taken to prevent ths not all cases can be sopped. Suicide is often done when on remand as individuals are not sure what will happen to them.
    • Method: A content analysis of Prison Department personal papers. This included a checklist of social, psychiatric and forensic history to help analyse. The groups getting a verdict of suicide were compared to those who did not.
    • Results: 442 unnautrual deaths were recorded between 1972-1987
      • 300 got a verdict of suicide whereas 52 from self inflicted injury
      • Significantly more of the suicide group were on remand compared to those who CSI. More of the CSI group weer female and the majority of deaths ocured at night.
    • Discussion: This study helps highlight the growing number of suicides in British prisons due to overcrowding. This causes extra stress amongst young prisoners as they have more interaction which may interfere with what they plan to do. Therefor adding to the uncertainty.
  • Method: A content analysis of Prison Department personal papers. This included a checklist of social, psychiatric and forensic history to help analyse. The groups getting a verdict of suicide were compared to those who did not.
  • Haney and Zimbardo - The past and the future of prison policy in the USA
    • Part One ( summary of prison changes over the last 25 years)             In  the 1980's a war against drugs was declared. rehabilitation was discredited and was replaced with incapacitation and which meant people where being locked away because they deserved it. Any sentence had to be served in full without parole. more prisons were build and now the USA has a falling crime rate. Prison population shows racial bias, American Africans make up 48% of the prison population although they only serve 6% of the population.Hispanics aand woemen are also represented against white men.
      • Super max prisons were introduced were you were forced to confident for 23 hours a day.
    • Part Two (Suggestions for improvement to the prison system)
      • 1. Prisons should be use sparingly agsint the war on crime and more resources should be put towards altenatives to prisons.
      • 2. The SPE populated with pyscholocially healthy young men. It was minimalistic and short lived, yet propduced powerful effects on the P's. Real prisons are over crowded and contain mentally unstable people. there we should take into account that individual differences will occur.
      • 3.Decompression programmes should be in place to reverse he effects of an extreme environments inside the prison.
      • 4.The situation a prisoner is in should be taken into consideration more. For example if a prisoner was violent then the cause should be investigated.
      • 5.Reform has to come from people are outside of the prison who will act upon this.
      • 6.More knowledge into the prison system should be used such as psychological knowledge and they are disappointed the SPE hasn't changed the prison system.


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