Germany 1918-45.

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  • Germany 1918-1945
    • The impact of war on Germany
      • Huge gaps between rich and poor
      • Stress of War led to revolutions in October and November and the abducation of the Kaiser and Germany became a democracy
      • Industry output falls - 600,000 widows - National income fallen
      • Germany was suffering significant shortages due to Royal Navel Blockade
    • Revolutions of 1918
      •   October 1918, sailors at the German naval base at Kiel refused to obey an order to attack British ships. 
      • By 6th November, the revolution had spread to many German cities and even to soldiers fighting on the Western Front. – snowball effect
      • When the Kaiser abdicated, power was handed to the leader of the Social Democratic Party, Friedrich Ebert. This did not stop the food shortages or the civil unrest and street battles between rival political groups.
      • In January 1919 revolution threatened Berlin itself. Chancellor Ebert saw that democratic rule was under threat, so he called in the German army and the Freikorps (ex-soldiers) They crushed the revolution in Munich and executed the leaders. (Munich and Kapp Putsch)
    • Weimar Constitution
      • Everyone could vote over 20 through Proportional Representation (PR)
      • The chancellor (chosen by President) needed support of 2/3 of the Reichstag to pass laws.
      • Reichstag was elected every 4 years
      • President elected every 7 years. Also had Article 48 for "emergencies"
      • Problems of WC
        • Weak coalition Governments
        • PR allowed extremists to get foothold in politics
        • Article 48 was abused by Hindenberg
    • Treaty
      • Alsace-Lorraine given to France
      • lost overseas colonies
      • Army reduced to 100k
      • No tanks, airforce, subs or naval ships
      • Rhineland  stripped and Allies controlled
      • £6,600million in reporations
      • German not aloud in League of Nations
    • Attacks against Republic
      • Left
        • Spartacists- January 1919, 100,000 communist in Berlin occupied key buildings - Freikops crushed revolution and leaders killed
      • Right
        • Spread myths - Stab in the Back - Gov. betrayed German soldiers and November criminals myth - politicians who signed the Armistice
        • Assassinations of members murdered two key politicians
        • Kapp Putsch - 1920 - 5000 RW and friekorps marched on Berlin.
        • Munich Putsch - 1923 - Hitler's attempt to overthrow - Hitler assembled group of unemployed men and former soldiers, known as the storm troopers (the SA), 8 November 1923, Hitler and 600 storm troopers burst into a meeting The SA took over the army headquarters and the offices of the local newspaper.
          • 9 November 1923, Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a triumphal march to take power.
    • French occupation of Ruhr
      • German govt. bankrupt at end of war and no resoucrces
      • TofV. took away land and had to pay money
      • When Germany couldn't keep up with regular payments- France invaded and raided the Ruhr
      • German govt urged resistance and the French arrested anyone who did
    • Stressmann  appointed chancellor
      • The Dawes Plan 1924
        • US loans
        • Arranded installments so that Germany can build and France would get money
          • France moved out of Ruhr when Passive resisment was stopped
            • Everything improves - pressure , unemployed, trading and output
      • The Young Plan 1929
        • Reparations bill cut down to £2bn and given 59years longer to pay
          • Possible to lower taxes which boosted economy
      • Locarno Agreement 1925
        • Peace treaty and promises of defence if attacked
      • What was achieved under Stressmann 1924-1929
        • Restored economicstability
          • Regained Germany's place on international stage
            • Steered the Weimar Rebulic out of troubled years
    • impact of Hyperinflation
      • Inflation was caused by: Govt. getting 1/4 of outflow in tax - Germans stopping work to annoy French - they printed more and more money
      • Effects of Inflation - 1923 - one £ now is 20bil marks. Imports crashed as supplies wouldn't take Marks
      • Savings became worthless
      • Angry people turned to Nazi Party


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