Germany and the Cold War

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  • Germany and the Cold War
    • Reunification
      • USA wanted a united, capitalist Germany, to trade with and help prevent spread of communism
    • Division
      • Soviet Union wanted Germany to be weak, communist and divided, never be able to attack Soviet Union again
    • Eastern Germany and the Berlin Blockade
      • Soviet Union had 1.5 million troops in its zone, Western countries had sent most troops home
      • Grew almost all the food West Berlin ate
      • Jun 1948, Soviet Union closed all toad, rain and canal links to W. Berlin to force British, French and US troops to leave their zone in the city
      • Blocked all supplies into Berlin to show it had the power to stop a divided Germany working
    • Bizonia and Western Germany
      • Made sense for US and Britain to join forces, easy to administer, became bizonia (included in Marshall Plan), later on French zone joined to create trizonia (W. Germany)
      • Not popular with Soviet Union, Stalin was not consulted. Thought Bizonia went against the agreement, suspected USA was aiming to permanently divide richer Western Europe from poorer Eastern Europe
    • Berlin Airlift
      • W. Berlin couldn't last long without supplies but pulling out would look weak, undermining USA's image.
      • Western powers responded with an airlift (26 June 1948 to Sept 1949), thousands of supplies were flown daily into Berlin
    • West Germany
      • Airlift made USA appear peaceful and generous
      • Sept 1949 - FRG was officially formed, with US support
      • Apr 1949, Western European countries and the USA formed NATO to counter the Soviet military threat
    • East Germany
      • Airlift made Soviet Union appear aggressive and threatening
      • Oct 1949 - GDR was officially formed as a Soviet state
      • May 1955 - USSR formed Warsaw Pact to counter military threat from NATO

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