Germany 1890-1945 (6)

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  • Germany 1890-1945 (6)
    • Nazis and the Church (2)
      • Nazis took over Protestant Church and remade it as Reich Church - loyal to Nazis, led by Bishop Müller
      • Faith movement - Nazis tried to make a new religion based on paganism and love of nature (quite unsuccessful)
      • Jehovah's Witnesses resisted the Nazis and refused to recognise their authority above God.   < 30k sent to concentration camps
    • Racial policy
      • Spread his policy through propaganda and media
      • Discrimination and boycott of Jewish shops 1933 onward
      • Separation under Nuremburg Laws 1935
        • Stopped Aryans marrying outside their race
      • Persecuting /attacking Jews e.g. Kristellnacht Nov. 1938
        • Homes etc were destroyed and 100s killed. 30k Jews sent to concent. camps
      • Extermination - kept in ghettoes then ** shot 1mil Jews.
        • Final Solution Jan 1942 for extermination camps - 6mil Jews killed and 2mil others killled
      • T4 euthanasia programme forcibly sterilised 400k disabled people and killed 200k
    • Opposition to Nazis
      • Mostly lack of opposition due to use of terror and media
      • Edelweiss Pirates - working class teens who did not join and even attacked HJ groups
        • Murdered a Gestapo so 13 of EP were executed
      • White Rose Group - students led by Hans and Sophie Scholl, leaders caught and executed in 1943
        • Printed anti-war leaflets
      • Swing Youth - middle class, rebelled by engaging in counter culture
      • Army officers plotted to kill Hitler in failed 1944 July Bomb Plot
    • Impact of WWII
      • Initial support due to propaganda
      • Life became more difficult as war continued
        • food and fuel shortages by 1942 (rations)
          • Growth of the Black Market
        • Boys drafted into fire service and helped defend Berlin
          • Girls helped in evacuation camps and harvest
        • 600k civilians killed and 750k injured in bombing raids
      • Conditions worsened, 2mil soldiers killed and 4mil injured


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