German Reformation

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  • Created on: 26-04-15 15:51
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  • German Reformation
    • Erasmus
      • reform the church  by calling to the simplicity of the first christians
        • Stressed the word of God
          • looked critically at the bible to discover accurate meaning
      • education was the way to cause the change
        • reform the church  by calling to the simplicity of the first christians
          • Stressed the word of God
            • looked critically at the bible to discover accurate meaning
        • restore faith based on scripture
      • attacked the value of monastic life
      • Writings
        • 1500 Adages
          • European Fame
          • classic learning open to a wider public. over 800 adages in latin/ greek added to till 4,000
        • Handbook of a christain soldier (1503)
          • restore CC to a simple imitation of the life of christ (Gospel) summary/guide
        • Praise of the Folly 1511
          • most famous piece of work bitter intense attack of the standards of member of the church
            • mocked Pope Julius; war lover
        • New testament in Greek 1516
          • first available to the public
            • dedicated to Pope Leo X replied flattery and for him to carry on his work
        • Freedom of the will (1524)
          • choose own desting, countered view spread by protestant Reformer Luther
            • Martin Luther
              • asked Erasmus to join him. No; anti war unlike Luther
              • 1517: The 95 Theses
                • clerical abuses
                  • Money causes greed-only God can save souls
                    • 1517: The 95 Theses
                      • clerical abuses
                        • Money causes greed-only God can save souls
                          • Indulgences. Free pass from purgatory
                            • Johann Tetzel
                              • pay debt back for the building of st Peters Baasilica in rome
                      • nailed to church in Wittenburg
                    • Indulgences. Free pass from purgatory
                      • Johann Tetzel
                        • pay debt back for the building of st Peters Baasilica in rome
                • nailed to church in Wittenburg
              • Teachings; venacular bible, priesthood of all believers, sola scripture,magisterial reformation, belief in bible 3 sacraments, no purgatory, pope no contorl
      • didnt attack  its key teachings or condemned piety and carefully phrased
      • on good terms with bishops and popes
    • Lollards
      • heretical groups
        • Hussites
          • evidence that there was Protestantism before luther
            • first part of western Europe to break away the obience of the pope.
          • Jan Hus
            • influenced by Wyclif
              • John Wyclif
                • John Wyclif. outspoken attacks on clerics. Belief condemned by pope 1377
                  • powerful friends so avoided punishment
                  • translated Bible into English
                    • Bible only source of authority. denied authority of pope urged monarchs to reform
            • 1411 views condemned asked to come to rome to explain.Refused!
            • attacked sale of indulgences
            • heretic, but allowed to live safely in a castle
            • 1414 wrote famous works, mainly based on Wyclif
              • council of Constance met 1414 and Hus summoned to Pope John XXIII. Safe conduct from emperor Sigismund but tried for heresy and burned 1415
                • Huge resentment
                  • 1420 Independent Bohemian church set up ( rejected popes authority)
                    • services in Czech, Bread and wine.
          • appealed to Czech national feelings against German dominance of church/gov and pope
            • support: all element in Bohemian society (nobility)
      • Hussites
        • evidence that there was Protestantism before luther
          • first part of western Europe to break away the obience of the pope.
        • Jan Hus
          • influenced by Wyclif
            • John Wyclif
              • John Wyclif. outspoken attacks on clerics. Belief condemned by pope 1377
                • powerful friends so avoided punishment
                • translated Bible into English
                  • Bible only source of authority. denied authority of pope urged monarchs to reform
          • 1411 views condemned asked to come to rome to explain.Refused!
          • attacked sale of indulgences
          • heretic, but allowed to live safely in a castle
          • 1414 wrote famous works, mainly based on Wyclif
            • council of Constance met 1414 and Hus summoned to Pope John XXIII. Safe conduct from emperor Sigismund but tried for heresy and burned 1415
              • Huge resentment
                • 1420 Independent Bohemian church set up ( rejected popes authority)
                  • services in Czech, Bread and wine.
        • appealed to Czech national feelings against German dominance of church/gov and pope
          • support: all element in Bohemian society (nobility)
      • appealed to to townspeople, merchants gentry
    • lay movements
      • Devotio Moderna
      • Savonarola
        • churchman who tried to reform morality
        • warned people of Florence that Judgement was at hand
        • Medicis ruling family removed which removed abuses within the chuch eg Nepotism
        • simple life and repentance
        • burn items like Porno magazines, makeup
        • public opinion turned on him; condemned and burned.1498
        • views admired and influenced reform
      • slow response to reform
        • problems of Italian politics, the danger of the turks and obstruction of the cardinal at papal courts
        • Calling of Lateran Council evidence that papacy wished to respond
          • condemned long standing abuses of the church, attempted to reduce lavish life styles and better education
            • lack of strong drive from the top
          • lack of strong drive from the top
      • Pope Adrian VI (1522-3)
        • from Netherlands so no party in rome to grant favours to nor factions to support
        • personal holiness and integrity
          • refused luxuries_ scared cardinals
            • 1st task- reform the papal curia from where 'all evil has come'
              • nobles obstructed every proposal
                • refused luxuries_ scared cardinals
                  • 1st task- reform the papal curia from where 'all evil has come'
                    • nobles obstructed every proposal
          • Clement VII (1523-34)
            • aristocrat from medici family
              • weak, indecisive and afraid to commit to reform
            • wished to keep papcy independent
              • 1520 Italy battleground from the rivalry between France and Charles
                • although problem emerging in Germany (Luther) Clement refused to call another council
                • Clement supported France- Bad choice. Charles won.
                  • Charles unpaided troops sacked Rome 1527
                    • Turning point in catholic reformation
                    • sign that god was displeased with the morals of the city and pace of the reform
                      • churches visible wealth  was looted and popes income halved
                        • progressive cardinals pressed for change
                          • wanted to elect a pope more committed to reform
            • Pope Paul III
              • cardinal aged 25. lavish lifestyle. 5 children.
                • 1520 spiritual change of heart
                  • elected pope aged 66 ( short reign?) but lived 15 more years
              • immense energy,clear and determined views
                • commited himself to reform and re-asserted the leadership of the papcy
                  • 1540 the foundation of the society of Jesus
                    • Ignatius of Loyola
                      • inspiration, heart and driving force
                      • founder of Jesuits 1540
                        • served the poor ,lecturing and guiding people through Ignatius's spiritual exercise
                        • criticised by Bobadilla and Rodriguez as didn't like the way in which the early informality of the society was changing to becoming obsessed with structure, minute rules & unnecessary form filling
                          • "Tyrant"
                          • too concerned with gaining the favour of rich and influential
                            • he maintained a vast correspondence with Portuguese, Hapsburg and Bavarian royalty , as well as leading aristocratic family
                        • Jesuits
                          • Missionaries
                            • carry out missionary work amongst those who had no christain faith.
                              • political relationship with portugal so concentrated on working with their rulers
                              • went to Brazil 1549 became a dominant religious order
                          • educators
                            • educators. critical role in the revival of the CC. Strengthened peoples faith through teachings
                              • developed network of schools that eventually spread to all catholic europe
                                • over 800 in 1773
                                • no keen on idea of schools to educate non Jesuits
                              • first school for non-Jesuits Messina 1547
                                • Jesuit college in rome 1551
                                  • expansion of Jesuits school system
                          • Preachers
                            • preaching sermons on sundays
                            • 2/3 sermons a day
                              • not to enter theologian debates
                          • Confessors
                            • repected and popular
                            • unusual, didnt charge for services
                            • lax approach. acussed of hyhypocrisy and no fixed standards
                          • over 4,000 students sent to germany . First college Cologne 1544 6 jesuits and by 1630 there were 3,000
                            • great force for reviving catholic central europe
                            • 1630 2,200 jesuit educational istitutions.
                      • 1522 began work on spiritual exercises
                        • 1534 Ignatius and 6 companions vowed to remain together to go to the holy land.
                          • 1537 trip to holy land via Venice, but war between Venice and Turks made it impossible
                            • 1538 Ignatius and 2 companions went to Rome to offer their services
                            • 1339 still aimed to go to Jerusalem by Pope Paul suggested they saved souls in Rome/ital6y
                              • 1538 Ignatius and 2 companions went to Rome to offer their services
                              • 1540 Pope Paul III officially founded the Society of Jesus with the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae
                          • companions
                            • Bobadilla
                              • Spanish aristocrat. respected Ignatius but fiery/restless temperament lead him to dislike publically the growing conformity and formality of the society after 1550 .
                              • 1556 after Ignatius death great crisis, sided with pope Paul IV wanted to reduce privileges of the order
                            • Favre
                              • fervent supporter of Ignatius and promoting spiritual exercise1540 much of time in Germany reporting the Lutheranism  issue  and poor state of Germany
                            • Rodriguez
                              • increased Jesuits numbers. strong supporter of king John III. independent spirit and development of highly personal ministry worried ignatius
                            • Lainez
                              • 2nd to join. impressed Paul- asked to teach theology in Rome.
                                • council of Trent, asked to check details of the Index of Prohibited Books (pope produced 1559)
                              • asked to represent Pius IV at the Colloquy of Poissy 1561
                                • call a compromise between catholic and calvinist
                            • Salmeron
                              • multi tasker marked him as a leading Jesuit ( in demand)
                                • attended council of Trent
                                  • 1564 wrote many commentaries on scripture. life was every aspect of Jesuit misson
                                • set up first Jesuit college 1550 in Naples before returning for the 2nd Council of Trent
                                  • diplomat at Diet of Augsberg 1555
                            • Xavier
                              • given authority for mission work by John of Portugal and Pope Paul
                                • one of the greatest Christian missionaries
                      • society not to attack the vices of others or openly criticise their way of life.
                        • founder of Jesuits 1540
                          • served the poor ,lecturing and guiding people through Ignatius's spiritual exercise
                          • criticised by Bobadilla and Rodriguez as didn't like the way in which the early informality of the society was changing to becoming obsessed with structure, minute rules & unnecessary form filling
                            • "Tyrant"
                            • too concerned with gaining the favour of rich and influential
                              • he maintained a vast correspondence with Portuguese, Hapsburg and Bavarian royalty , as well as leading aristocratic family
                          • Jesuits
                            • Missionaries
                              • carry out missionary work amongst those who had no christain faith.
                                • political relationship with portugal so concentrated on working with their rulers
                                • went to Brazil 1549 became a dominant religious order
                            • educators
                              • educators. critical role in the revival of the CC. Strengthened peoples faith through teachings
                                • developed network of schools that eventually spread to all catholic europe
                                  • over 800 in 1773
                                  • no keen on idea of schools to educate non Jesuits
                                • first school for non-Jesuits Messina 1547
                                  • Jesuit college in rome 1551
                                    • expansion of Jesuits school system
                            • Preachers
                              • preaching sermons on sundays
                              • 2/3 sermons a day
                                • not to enter theologian debates
                            • Confessors
                              • repected and popular
                              • unusual, didnt charge for services
                              • lax approach. acussed of hyhypocrisy and no fixed standards
                            • over 4,000 students sent to germany . First college Cologne 1544 6 jesuits and by 1630 there were 3,000
                              • great force for reviving catholic central europe
                              • 1630 2,200 jesuit educational istitutions.
                  • 1542 the roman inquisisiton
                    • accpeted Carafa's recommendation to found an inquisition.
                      • 1541-2 italy in danger
                      • creat courts through europe superior toall others
                      • never implememented
                      • 1580 no evidence of protestantism
                  • 1545 the council of trent

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