Ks3 geography coasts, weather

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  • Geography Revision - Year 8
    • Weather
      • Climate - The overall/Average temperature, rainfall etc. of a place.
        • Microclimate - This is where the climate of an area is different to the climate of the surrounding area.
          • Shelter - Trees, hedges and walls can provide shelter from the wind. If you are sitting on the south side, it will be warmer.
          • Aspect - The way something faces. Places that face south will be warmer than those that face north
          • Surface - If the ground is made of tarmac or paving then it will be warmer than if it is made of grass.
          • Buildings - Buildings can change the wind direction and can also give of heat either by radiating the sun's heat back out or Air-Con units give out heat.
          • Physical Features - Trees provide shelter and shade, making it cooler, lakes cool the surrounding area.
      • Depressions
        • Warm front - Showery rain,
        • Cold front - heavy rain, often thunderstorms.
        • Depressions always travel from West to East
      • Anticyclones
        • High preassure
          • In winter you get cold weather with lots of sun and frost
          • In Summer it is very hot in the day and cold at night
      • Types of weather and how to measure them
        • Rain fall - rain Gauge
        • Sunshine/cloud cover - eye in oktas
        • Wind speed - anemometer in mph
        • Wind direction - wind vane
        • Air pressure - Barometers in millibars
        • Temperature - thermometer in degrees celsius
    • Coasts
      • Tides - the alternate rising and falling of the sea level each lunar day
        • Neap tides - where there is less movement in the tides than usual
        • Spring tides - caused by a new moon or full moon
      • Waves - wind causes waves to form because friction slows the air near the sea down. The stronger the wind the larger the waves
        • Constructive waves build the beach up. The swash is stronger than the backwash.
        • Destructive waves carry material back out to sea. The backwash is stronger than the swash
        • Fetch - This is the amount of open water the winds blow over.
        • Longshore drift - this is where the waves are coming at the coast at an angle and the beach begins to slowly move up the coast.
      • Errosion
        • Hydraulic action - The wave traps pockets of air. These weaken the and eventually break the rock.
        • Abrasion - the wave flings sand and pebbles at the cliff. this acts like sandpaper, breaking of small bits of the cliff
        • Solution - where water dissolves the soluble substances in the rock.
        • Attrition - chunks of rock get knocked together underwater, getting worn down into pebbles, shingle and sand.
        • features of errosion
          • Wave cut notch - the sea erodes lines of weakness
          • Cave - a cave is formed as the notch gets bigger
          • Arch - eventually the waves on either side will cause 2 caves on opposite sides to join and form an arch
          • Stack - when the arch collapses, a separate stack is left out in the sea
          • When the part at the bottom of the stack is worn away, the top of the stack will fall off, making a stump
      • Deposition
        • Bar - this is where longshore drift carries sand across a small inlet forming a sandy bar and separate sea
        • Tombolo -this is when an ofshore island is joined to the mainland by a strip of sand made by longshore drift
        • A Spit -this is where the coast changes direction but the longshore drift continues along the line where the coast was.
      • Coastal protection
        • cliffs can collapse when the sea errodes them, causing weakness. this can be prevented in many ways
          • Curved concrete sea walls can be built to reflect the power of the sea. They are strong and long lasting protection but can be ugly and can make acess to the beach difficult. They are also very expensive
          • Rock armour provides a natural looking solution that absorbs the waves energy. however, these angular blocks of stone can hurt your feet and make beach acess hard. They are quite cheap.

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