Geography GCSE Ecosystems

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  • Geography Ecosystems
    • Ecosystems
      • FOOD CHAIN -  A step by step diagram to show what eats what. Example : Heron > Fish > Beetle > Midge Larvae > Decaying Leaves
      • FOOD WEB - Shows the relationship between producers and consumers. (Multiple links between pro + con) Example - The sparrow and starling (Con) feed off the hawthorn bush (Pro)
      • PRODUCER - Organisms that obtain energy from the sun. (Tree) CONSUMER - Organisms that obtain their energy from eating other organisms.   ( Humans / Lions) DECOMPOSER -  Organisms such as bacteria that break down plants and animals. (Bacteria / Worms
      • ECOSYSTEM -  A natural system where Living things / Non living things interact and stay in balance with each other
    • Location
      • TEMPERATE FORESTS are found between 30 - 60 degrees north of the equator. Most can be found in Europe. NW EUROPE. Example - Sutton Park.
      • HOT DESERTS are found 30 Degrees N of Equator (Tropic of Cancer) or 30 Degrees S of the equator (Tropic of Capricorn) Example - Atacama, South America.
      • TROPICAL RAINFORETS  are found in South America, West Africa and South East Asia. Example - Amazon Rainforest.
    • Description
      • TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS - They have 4 layers  : Shrub Layer (0 -10 M) Contains Bushes. Lower Canopy (20-30M) Trees are normally branchless. Middle Canopy (30 - 40) Branch less trunks, energy used to grow, Top Canopy (45 -60M) Only emergent trees. Soil Type : LATOSOL.
      • HOT DESERT - The soil is shallow and gravelly.  Its dry and absorbs water quickly. Its also infertile. Little organic matter and its saline (Salts present on surface).
        • DESERT ADAPTATIONS  - Animals stay in shade to cool down. They also have camouflage to hide from predators. Cat uses have spikes to protect them from predators. Plants lose leaves in winter to increase Energy. Leaves are waxy to keep in moisture
      • TEMPERATE FORESTS - Temperate woodlands are mainly made up of deciduous tress that grow their leaves in the spring and drop them in autumn, as well as shrubs, grasses and many types of ferns and flowers. Soil Type : BROWN EARTH SOIL (VERY FERTILE)
    • Vegetation Adaptations
      • Trees have very large BUTRRESS ROOTS so it can support very tall trees. Anchors tree to ground.
      • TRF- Trees have  LESS SIDE BRANCHES as they are racing to get to the sunlight and do not want to waste time/energy developing branches.
      • TRF/TF-Leaves are LARGE so they can absorb more sunlight for photosynthesis. They have DRIP TIPS so the water can slip off easily an doesn't rot.
      • TRF/ TF-Leaves are WAXY, means less friction on leaf.
      • TRF/TF - LONG DEEP ROOTS to get access to the nutrients from deep fertile brown earth soil.


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