AQA Geography, paper 1. 

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    • Structure of the Earth
      • The Earth's crust is divided into 12-13 plates, which move at around 3-5cm per year.
        • Continental plates are older, less dense and can't sink.
        • Oceanic plates are younger, more dense and sink. Can be renewed and destroyed.
      • Plate movement occurs at two types of margin: tensional and compressional
        • Tensional: constructive (divergent) margin and conservative margin
        • Compressional: destructive margin and collision margin
    • Earthquakes
      • An earthquake is the movement of the earth, caused by the sudden release of pressure that has built up between plates.
      • Earthquakes occur along all plate boundaries, but if they occur at a subduction zone it's called a BENIOFF ZONE.
      • The origin of the earthquake is the FOCUS, and is usually deep underground. Earthquakes closer to the surface usually cause more damage.
  • CONSTRUCTIVE: volcanoes, lava plateau, earthquakes
  • DESTRUCTIVE: subduction zone, volcanoes, fold mountains, earthquakes
  • CONSERVATIVE: earthquakes, faults
  • COLLISION: fold mountains, earthquakes
  • TILTMETERS identify changes in the landscape, SEISMOMETERS measure earthquake waves.
  • PREDICTION: trying to forecast when an earthquake will happen
  • PROTECTION: building to withstand earthquakes
  • PREPARATION: hospitals, drills, ect...


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