Geography Revision 1.2 Hazardous Earth

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  • Geography Revision 1.1/2/3 Hazardous Earth
    • Tropical Cyclones
      • Typhoon Haiyan
        • Primary Impacts
          • Airport Damaged
          • 28,700 injured
          • 6,300 died
        • Secondary Impacts
          • Nearly 2 million people homeless
          • 11 million people affected
          • Local government in some areas collapsed
      • Hurricane Katrina
        • Primary Impacts
          • 1,800 people died
          • 300,000 homes were destroyed
          • Oil platforms were destroyed
        • Secondary Impacts
          • 10,000 people left homeless
          • 230,000 jobs lost due to destroyed businesses
          • Water diseases like cholera spread very easily
    • Climate change
      • The Greenhouse  Effect-        The retention of heat in the atmosphere caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases.
      • Global Warming-The rise in the average temperature of the Earth's surface
      • Greenhouse Gas-The gases responsible for global warming - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs
      • Natural causes
        • Volcanic activity - during a volcanic eruption carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
        • Solar output - there can be fluctuations in the amount of radiation from the sun. If there is high amount emitted there will be an increase in Earth's temperatures.
        • The Earth has natural warming and cooling periods caused by Milankovitch cycles or variations in the tilt and/or orbit of the Earth around the Sun (Wobble, roll and stretch theory).
      • Humans  Causes
        • Burning fossil fuels, eg coal, gas and oil - these release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
        • Dumping waste in landfill - when the waste decomposes it produces methane
        • Agriculture - agricultural practices lead to the release of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere.
      • Impacts on the UK
        • sea levels could rise, covering low lying areas, in particular east England
        • Scottish ski resorts may have to close due to lack of snow
        • crops such as oranges, grapes and peaches can be grown in the UK
        • winter heating costs will be reduced as winters will be milder
    • Atmospheric Circulation
      • 1)Air rises at the equator leading to low pressure and rainfall.
      • 2)When the air reaches the edge of atmosphere it cannot go any further and so it travels to the north and south.
        • 3)The air becomes colder and denser and falls,creating high pressure and dry conditions at around 30c north and south of the equator.
      • 4)Air rises at around 60c north and south and descends around 90c north and south.
      • Global atmospheric circulation creates winds across the planet and leads to the area of the high rainfall like the tropical rain forests and the area of dry air likes deserts
    • Evidence of climate change
      • Thermometer readings
      • Glacier retreat
      • Ice cores
      • Early spring
      • Rising sea levels


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