Geography, natural and weather hazards

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  • geography natural/ weather hazards
    • natural hazards
      • three types: atmospheric, geophysical, hydrological
      • hazard risk is the likelihood of a natural hazard occuring
      • factors affecting a hazard risk include, population density, deforestation, climate change and wealth
    • global atmospheric circulation
      • wind is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure
      • when a difference occurs, air moves from an area of high pressure to low pressure resulting in wind
      • towards the poles the suns energy spreads out over a larger area resulting in low temp and high pressure
      • at the equator, the suns energy is concentrated, resulting in high temp and low pressure
    • Typhoon Haiyan, 2013
      • widespread devastation to lare areas of south east asia, particularly the philippines
      • primary effects, 400mm rainfall, infrastructure damage, oil spill damaged the coast, over 6,000 fatalities and 2 million homeless.
      • secondary effects included, agricultural land flooded, contamination of water and £10 billion worth of damage
      • immediate responses included, 800,000 evacuated, £100 million worth of aid sent over, curfew introduce.
      • secondary responses included, legislation introduced, warning system developed and 4 year plan to rebuild homes
    • tropical storms
      • tropical storms are extreme low-pressure weather systems that cause sever wind and high precipitation
      • conditions required: temp >26, 60-70 water depth, between 5 and 30 degrees north and south of equator.
      • storms move from east to west due to the earths rotations
      • due to the earths curved surface and rotation, the Coriolis force causes winds ti bend and cyclones to spin
      • storms will be more sever and last longer as the earth gets hotter. they may also develop further away from the equator
    • UK weather hazards
      • drought, a prolonged period of time with low rainfall, leading to water shortages
      • heavy rain, a period of abnormal heavy rain.
      • heatwave, a prolonged period of abnormally hot weather
      • gales, a period of strong sustained surface winds.
      • extreme cold, a period of abnormally cold weather leading to snow and ice
      • thunderstorm, a period of heavy rain followed by thunder and lightning caused by hot and humid conditions
    • effects and responces
      • primary effects include, rainfall, buildings destroyed, deaths and injures, homeless and food shortages
      • secondary effects include, diseases, food shortages, damage to infrastructure, loss in economy and landslides
      • immediate responses include, evacuation, rescue, preventing diseases, shelters and ais
      • long term responses include, rehousing, repairs, improving infrastructure, warning systems, boosting the economy and restore water
    • Somerset levels flooding 2013-14
      • social effects, villages were inaccessible, schools closed, 600 homes damaged, power outages and evacuation
      • economic effects, businesses forced to close, road and rail links damaged, £145 million costs
      • environmental effects, sewage contaminated the land, deoxygenated water damaged habitats and debris littered the region
      • 20 year flood plan, roads raised, rivers were dredged and increase capacity in King Sedgemoor drain

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