geaography coastal landscapes

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  • Created by: molly
  • Created on: 02-04-18 11:50
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  • Geography-Costal Landscapes
    • Weathering
      • chemical- rocks reacting with slightly acidic water
      • Mechanical- water falls into the cracks in rocks and freezes and causes it to expand
      • Biological- action of plants and animals such as burrowing and tree roots
    • Erosion
      • Abrasion: breaking waves throw material against the coast
      • Hydraulic action: pressure of water against the coast line and compressing air in to joints
      • Attrition: rocks and pebbles in waves rub together and break into smaller pieces
      • Solution: the chemical action of some water dissolves rocks.
    • Transport
      • Traction- large boulders are rolled along the sea bed
      • Saltation- smaller stones are bounced along the seabed
      • Suspension- sand and small particles are carried along in the flow
      • Solution- some minerals are dissolved and carried along in the flow
    • coast lines
      • discordant- the rock types alternate and waves are at right angles to the rock, forming bays and headlands
      • Concordant- the same rock type and waves are parallel to the rocks
    • Waves
      • Destructive waves
        • swash is weak and backwash is strong
        • have high energy and occur in stormy conditions
        • material is dragged into the sea eroding the coast
      • constructive waves
        • swash Is strong and backwash is weak
        • material is deposited building up the coast
        • low energy and occur in calm conditions
    • UK weather and climate
      • The four seasons have different impacts on costal erosion
      • Effects of stormy weather
        • Strong winds increasing eroding power and heavy rainfall for mass movement
        • Frequent storms can damage costal landscapes such as spits
        • beach sediment and sand dunes can be removed
      • prevailing winds
        • The UK has south-west prevailing winds bring warm moist air from the atlantic and frequent rainfall
      • costal erosion- the breaking down and removal of material along the coast
      • Coastal retreat- when coastal erosion causes the coastline to move inland
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Headlands and bays
        • These develop on coastlines with a mix of hard and soft rock. Hard rock is left jutting out forming a headland and soft rock is eroded forming a bay
      • Caves, arches and stacks
        • cave formed when the waves erode a weakness in the rock such as a joint
        • Arch- formed when two caves erode back from either side of a headland and meet in the middle
        • stacks- forms when a arch collapses
      • Wave cut platforms
        • the erosion of cliffs can create wave cut platforms
        • rock face over hangs and wave-cut notch where the wave has undercut
        • overhang collapses and a platform is formed and the cliff retreats inland
    • Depositional landforms
      • Beaches
        • Beaches are accumulations of sand and shingle formed by deposition, erosion and transportation
      • Spits
        • Spits are narrow beaches of sand or shingle that are attached to the coast at one and taper to a point at the other
        • Flashcard for how they are formed
      • Bars
        • A bar is a spit that finally meets land and creates a ***** of land that joins two pieces of land
        • A apit that has grown in length and size
        • Flash card for *** formed
    • Human activity
      • urbanistation
        • weight of buildings makes cliffs more vunerable
        • Changes to drainage increase soil satuaration
        • Raises interest n protection costal landscapes
      • Agriculture
        • increases soil erosion and sedementation
        • creates wildlife habitats
      • Industry
        • increases pollution and destroy habittas
        • creates jobs

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