Holderness Coast

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  • Holderness Coast
    • Clay geology and high-energy environment caused coast to be fast eroding.
    • Located on the east coast of England
    • Factors that affect the coast
      • Weather
        • Winter storms produce stronger and higher sea levels.
          • Rain intensifies land-based processes.
            • Saturated clay cliffs suffer increased runoff leading to slumping and other forms of mass movement
      • Waves
        • The largest waves come from the north east, which has the greatest fetch.
          • Destructive waves erode the beaches and attack the foot of the cliffs, removing the clay in suspension.
            • Longshore Drift carries the sediment southwards.
              • Tides and low energy environment of the Humber Estuary allow sediment to collect forming a spit, mudflats and sand dunes near to spurn head.
      • Geology
        • Chalk anf boulder clay dominates.
          • More resistant chalk has survived large-scale erosion, creating Flamborough head.
            • The boulder clay cliffs to the south are more easily eroded, this has caused the sweeping bay of Holderness.
              • The differential rate of erosion has caused the coastline to have this shape.
    • Features
      • Flamborough head - resistant chalk headland shows how erosion can cause arch, stack and wave-cut platform.
      • Holderness coast - Mappleton shows how less resistant rock (bloulder clay) erodes faster than more resistant rocks
      • Humber Estuary - has helped wind, tides and river processes to develop ecosystems of dunes, mudflats and saltmarsh
      • Spurn head - sediment brought here by LSD are deposited where the winds, waves and the river estuary have created a large but fragile recurved spit
    • Human Factors
      • Presence of people along the coast turns physical processes into hazards and threatens life and property. Increasing population levels hasn't helped. Risks from ersosion is so great in Easington that the gas terminal is under threat
      • Interfering with natural processes such as LSD or using unsuitable defence strategies can have a negative affects. Downdrift problems from groynes is preventing sediment build up else where.
      • Global warming and short term changes in climate are creating a rise in sea level and increasing storminess. Spurn head and the Humber estuary are at great threat from flooding and increased erosion.
    • Management
      • Northern Section
        • Little need for protection, beach material is relatively stable. Erosion increased southwards. Beyond Hornsea, loss of sediment by LSD is great.
      • Skipsea
        • Series of gabion boxes
      • Barmston
        • Dumping of rock waste for its only defence
      • Hornsea
        • Well protected for its touristic values. Groynes have been repaired and new ones built, this cost £5.2 mil
          • Steel doors guard the entrance to the beach, sea wall has been raised slightly and sand dunes are having trees planted on them.
      • Withernsea
        • Has groynes and sea wall and has new wave return walls, rip rap in front of that, along with some beach nourishment, cost £6.3 mil. Natural beach lost left with a wave-cut platform
      • Easington
        • Revetment of rock armour to protect gas terminal
      • Spurn head
        • Abandonment left coast to erode, too expensive to maintain, abandoned in 1995.

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