Geography (theme 1 - water) part 1

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  • WATER - What are river processes and what landforms do they create?
    • Erosion
      • Hydraulic action- the sheer force of flowing water washes away any loose material on the bed and banks.
      • Abrasion (also known as corrasion) -the stones carried by the river are washed into the banks/bed of the river, wearing them away. sometimes stones can get trapped in a dip, where they will swirl around and create a pothole!
      • Solution (also known as corroision) - the slightly acidic river water dissolves rocks made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
      • Attrition - stones collide together and are broken down becoming smaller and rounder
    • Transport
      • Traction - stones are rolled along the river bed by the force of flowing water
      • Saltation - small stones bounce along the river bed by flowing water
      • Suspension - particles of silt and clay float and are carried along by flowing water
      • Solutiion - some minerals dissolve in water. Limestone for example, slowly dissolves.
    • Deposition
      • If a river slows down becasue there is less water flowing in it, or the land is less steep, the river will have to carry its load.
      • Some of this material therefore will be dropped (deposited).

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