Geographical skills

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  • Geographical skills
    • Basics
      • use labels to name a feature on photo
      • annotate to describe or explain
      • A sketch: a simple line drawing in a field, from a photo, or a map, can be labelled and annotated, should only be relevant to the question
      • vertical aerial photography, satellite imagery, oblique aerial photography, ground level photography
    • Cartographic skills
      • Atlas Maps show distribution (distribution of vegetation etc)
        • also contain maps which show:
          • climate zones and global variations in precipitation and rainfall
          • country boundaries (political maps)
          • height and shape of the land (relief)
          • population distribution (how people are spread within a region or country
        • ways of describing a distribution, pattern or trend
          • linear/dispersed
          • spaced/clustered
          • uneven/evenly
          • scattered/irregular
          • densely/sparsely
    • Sketch Maps
      • Sketch maps can be drawn using info from a map, photo, or field and they:
        • show where basic features are located
        • often drawn from an aerial view
        • black and white in exams
        • have simple labels and annotations
    • Map symbols and direction
      • use map symbols on OS maps and the 8 compass points
    • Grid reference and distance
      • you use grid references to locate features on a map
        • write the distance ALONG before the distance UP
      • distances from one point to another in a linear fashion are called straight line distances- sometimes called 'as the crow flies'
        • distances which follow a curved pattern, usually along a river or road, are called winding distances
    • Cross sections and relief
      • a visual representation of the landscape from an OS map is called a cross section
        • drawing a cross section:
          • 1: place a strip of paper along the given transect line
            • 2: mark off the points where the major (brown) contour lines meet the transect line
              • 3: mark the location of other features such as rivers, roads or high points
                • 4: with the paper strip lined up with x-axis, transfer the contour lines to the grid
                  • 5: mark off the height of each contour line using a neat cross. join up the crosses with a ruler and pencil
      • closer the contours, the steeper the slope!
        • different types of slope: concave (gradual-steep), convex (steep-gradual)
    • land use and settlement shapes
      • On an OS map will find info about:
        • land use (settlements and farmland)
          • vegetation (woods and parklands)
            • communication (roads and railways)
      • describing and identifying settlements:
        • SITE- physical characteristics of the place
          • SITUATION- location in relation to other place
            • SHAPE- the way the settlement looks from an aerial view
          • SAGA: Slope (gentle/steep), Aspect (NESW facing), Ground conditions (floodplain etc), Altitude (height above sea level)
    • Physical & Human patterns
      • physical features (rivers and coastlines and human features (settlements and roads)
        • use maps, photos and sketches to describe an area
        • describe the site of a settlement using a map
        • a photo or sketch can provide more detail about the function of the settlement
    • Human activity on OS maps
      • industrial (factories etc)
      • residential (houses etc)
      • rural (agriculture etc)
      • tourism (leisure facilities etc)
    • Geographical ivestigation
      • Your geographical investigation or enquiry should follow a logical step-by-step process
        • Step 1: identify the geographical questions/issue you are investigating and create sub-questions to help answer it
          • Step 2: establish a sequence of investigation
            • Step 3: extract info from a range of sources (drawings, photos etc). You will then need to present the info
              • Step 4: Describe (label ant patterns/trends) analyse and interpret (explain) your evidence
                • Step 5: Draw a conclusion and justify it using the evidence collected
                  • Step 6: evaluate the investigation (inclu. the methods used to collect the data,  presentation, analysis of the evidence
      • Using ICT: websties for research, software packages (GIS) to help write up an enquiry, Excel and Google maps to help present data

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