Gene technology

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Genomes and gene technology
    • Case studies
      • Golden rice
        • Beta Carotene
        • Reduces vitamin A defficiency
          • Reduces the amount of people that go blind
      • Insulin
        • Recombinant plasmids placed into bacteria
          • Calcium salts and heat shock needed
        • Ampicilillin and Tetracycline resistance genes are genetic markers
        • Have the insulin gene if they grow on ampicillin but not tetracycline
      • Somatic gene therapy alters alleles in body cells
        • Does not affect offspring
      • Germ line cell therapy changed DNA in sex cells or developing embryos.
        • Changes the DNA of all offspring
    • DNA probing
      • Short single strands of DNA about 50-80 nucleotides long
      • They have a specific base sequence that is complementary to the target sequence
      • The probe can be labelled so we can see where it binds to
        • Radioactive marker- shows up when exposed to photographic film
        • Fluorescent marker that shows up when exposed to UV light
      • used to locate a specific gene for genetic engineering
      • Identifying the presence or absence of a particular allele for a disease
    • Polymerase chain reaction
      • Carried out on small samples of DNA to make multiple copies
      • DNA sample heated to 95 to break hydrogen bonds
        • Mix with primers and DNA polymerase
          • Cool mixture to 55 so that primers can anneal
            • Raise temp to 72 so that DNA polymerase can work, it lines up free nucleotides to form complementary strands
              • DNA sample heated to 95 to break hydrogen bonds
                • Mix with primers and DNA polymerase
                  • Cool mixture to 55 so that primers can anneal
                    • Raise temp to 72 so that DNA polymerase can work, it lines up free nucleotides to form complementary strands
        • Primers - short singe stranded sequences of DNA.
          • Needed so they can bind to a section of DNA as DNA polymerase cannot bind to single stands of DNA.
        • PCR is different to natural DNA replication
          • Primers
          • Heating and cooling needed
    • Electrophoresis
      • Genomes and gene technology
        • Case studies
          • Golden rice
            • Beta Carotene
            • Reduces vitamin A defficiency
              • Reduces the amount of people that go blind
          • Insulin
            • Recombinant plasmids placed into bacteria
              • Calcium salts and heat shock needed
            • Ampicilillin and Tetracycline resistance genes are genetic markers
            • Have the insulin gene if they grow on ampicillin but not tetracycline
          • Somatic gene therapy alters alleles in body cells
            • Does not affect offspring
          • Germ line cell therapy changed DNA in sex cells or developing embryos.
            • Changes the DNA of all offspring
        • DNA probing
          • Short single strands of DNA about 50-80 nucleotides long
          • They have a specific base sequence that is complementary to the target sequence
          • The probe can be labelled so we can see where it binds to
            • Radioactive marker- shows up when exposed to photographic film
            • Fluorescent marker that shows up when exposed to UV light
          • used to locate a specific gene for genetic engineering
          • Identifying the presence or absence of a particular allele for a disease
        • Polymerase chain reaction
          • Carried out on small samples of DNA to make multiple copies
          • Primers - short singe stranded sequences of DNA.
            • Needed so they can bind to a section of DNA as DNA polymerase cannot bind to single stands of DNA.
          • PCR is different to natural DNA replication
            • Primers
            • Heating and cooling needed
      • Shortest lengths of DNA travel the furthest fastest
      • Gel and sample covered in buffer solution that conducts electricity
      • DNA samples diffuse through the gel towards the +ve end
      • DNA has a slight -ve charge
    • short sequences of DNA
      • Automated DNA sequencing
        • The reaction mixture contains:
          • DNA polymerase
          • Primers
          • Copies of the single stranded DNA
        • Some bases are modified to become a terminator base and carry a fluorescent marker
        • If a modified base is added the reaction stops
        • Many molecules of DNA of varying lengths are made
        • DNA polymerase attaches free nucleotides
      • Free nucleotides
        • The reaction mixture contains:
          • DNA polymerase
          • Primers
          • Copies of the single stranded DNA
      • Recombinant DNA techniques
        • DNA combined from 2 different souces
        • DNA from both sources cut with the same restriction enzymes
          • Complemantary sticky ends
          • Hydrolysis reaction
        • DNA ligase joins sugar phosphate back bones together - LIGATION
          • Condensation reaction
      • DNA from both sources cut with the same restriction enzymes
        • Complemantary sticky ends
        • Hydrolysis reaction

      Comments

      No comments have yet been made

      Similar Biology resources:

      See all Biology resources »See all DNA, genetics and evolution resources »