Genetics

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  • Genetics
    • Sexual and  A-Sexual reproduction
      • Sexual
        • Variation
          • More offspring can be created when child is born. New potential parents
      • A-Sexual
        • Quick
          • Low Cost
            • No fertilization required
      • Advantages
        • Disadvantages
          • A-Sexual
            • Little variation
          • Sexual
            • High costs
              • Slow
                • Less reliable
    • Mitosis and Meiosis
      • Mitosis
        • This is cell division that produces two daughter cells from one parent cell. this is used for growth and repair
      • Meiosis
        • This is cell division which produces sex cells or gametes. This process occurs when a nucleus divide twice two produce four cells
    • DNA
      • This is a molecule found in the nucleus of cells which codes for our genetic makeup
      • Four Chemicals found in DNA
        • Adenine
        • Thymine
        • Cytosine
        • Guanine
      • DNA Structure
        • Base Pair
          • The two bases making up each rung on a DNA
        • Triplet
          • A sequence of three nucleotides found ion a DNA strand
        • Nucleotide
          • A molecule containing a sugar phosphate group in DNA
    • Variation
      • Variation in a Spices produced by sexual reproduction can be costly in energy etc but will help the spices in time of need for example if the environment changes there will most likely be a variation of the spices that will survive
    • Mutations
      • Somatic
        • This is mutation in the body cells that can spread throughout the body but cannot be passed onto offspring
      • Gamatic
        • Gamatic mutation is when mutation occurs in the sex cells this is the worst of the two because any offspring that revive a mutated sex cell will also revive the mutation
      • Mutations are random changes in the base sequence in DNA. This can sometimes create new alleles
    • Test Crosses
      • These are probability squares that determine the probability of  a certain trait.
    • Pedigree Charts
      • This is a chart which shows how genes are inherited. These charts can also be used to determine the genotype of a human or animal
    • Definitions
      • Genotype
        • The combination of two alleles for a particular gene
      • Phenotype
        • The trait visible
      • Allele
        • One of a number of possible forms of a gene
      • Gene
        • A length of DNA carrying code for one feature
      • Pure Breeding
        • Organizims homozygous for a trait
      • Chromosome
        • Stuctures bearing genes found in the nucleus of a cell

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