Pest Control

A mindmap on pest control, i tried to make the notes as dense as possible and covered all areas of pest control :)

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  • Pest Control
    • Pest - An organism that reduces the quality orproductivity of crops or livestock by...
      • Reducing harvest due to ill health of crop/livestock (disease)
      • Reducting harvest due to competition for water, light, nutrients etc (weeds)
      • Killing the crop/livestock
      • Reducing quatity of harvest ie they eat it
      • Causing human disease.
    • Why do we need pest control?
      • 1/3 world harvest lost to pests (mostly LEDC)
      • Important if intensive to large scale farming methods such as mono and intensive rearing are used.
    • Pesticides
      • Toxic chemicals used to kill pests
      • Rapid control with long term problems
      • Applied via: Spraying, powder seeds, soil injection, dipping livestock, denching (livestock drink pesticides to kill internal parasites)
      • Properties
        • Specificity and persistance
        • Toxicity and mode of action
        • Cumulative (bioaccum and biomag)
    • Herbicides
      • Weeds reduce crops by: Competition, contamination, providing food for other pests (fungi & insects)
      • Chemical weed killers (herbicides)
      • Hormone herbicides have systematic chemicals that kill weeds by modifying aspects of growth or development. (Harmful in weeds)
        • 2,4, D - Kills broadleaf weeds by causing excessive cell elongation.
        • 2,4,5,T - Kills all broadleaf plants. Insoluble, only kills shallow rooted weeds. Tetratogenic to humans so rarely used.
        • Off-target spray damage from droplet drift/vapour drift.
        • Droplet drift - wind       Vapour drift - evap
      • Cause unrestrained growth until plant runs out of food reserves and dies.
      • Affect certain plant types so can kill broad leaf wees in cerial crops.
    • Insectisides
      • No natural preditors if accidently imported.
      • Serious problem in tropics due to no cold winter.
      • Damage by...eating crop, spoil appearence and spread disease (sleeping sickness in cattle and virus disease in crops)
    • Microorganisms and antibiotics
      • Antibiotics treat bacterial and fungal infections to control infections in sick animals.
      • Increase gross growth efficiency of livestock by reducing gut bacteria.
      • Most resistant bacteria survive. Some bacteria in livestock can pass disease onto humans eg e-coli and salmonella.
      • Quantity of antibiotics used on livestock much higher than humans.
      • Bacterica can exchange genetic info between species and so can become pathogen.
    • Cultural control (without pestesides)
      • Crop rotation, mulching, barrier crops.
      • Sowing density/date
      • Intercropping, pherimone traps, animal hormones.
      • iological control, use of pest.
  • Affect certain plant types so can kill broad leaf wees in cerial crops.

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