Genetic factors influencing development

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  • Genetic factors influencing development.
    • Genetic inheritance:
      • Female
        • 46 Chromosomes per cell.
          • Each egg has 23 chromosomes
            • Back to 46 chromosomes 23 pairs
              • Genes have a big effect on health, growth, development abilities and physical appearance.
                • Some people have genes that cause disease (inherited disease)
      • Male
        • 46 Chromosomes per cell.
          • Each sperm has 23 chromosomes
            • Chromosomes contain chenes.
              • Genes have a big effect on health, growth, development abilities and physical appearance.
                • Some people have genes that cause disease (inherited disease)
    • DNA
      • These instructions are called genes.
      • Lots of genes make up a chromosome.
      • DNA contains instructions for producing proteins and it is these proteins that regulate the development of a human being.
      • DNA is a sequence that makes up lots of instructions.
    • Chromosomes
      • Chromosome 23 will determine the sex of a baby.
      • Chromosome 21 is linked to Down's syndrome - this is where an extra copy of the mother's chromosome (associated with age) is passed on resulting in the 3 instead of 2
      • The bigger the chromosome, the more genetic material it contains. Chromosome 21 is the smallest, therefore the problems with this gene will be less severe which is why a Down's syndrome baby will survive to middle age.
      • In other words, if there was an extra chromo-some 1, 2 or 3, the baby would die because it would have more impact.
      • For example, an extra chromosome 18 results in Edward's Syndrome where the majority of cases die before birth (due to organ, breathing and muscle failures).
    • Pre-disposition to particular conditions.
      • A person may have a complex set of genes that may put them at risk (predisposed) to a condition.
      • Drug abuse (specifically cannabis) can trigger schizophrenia.
      • Stressful life events can trigger depression
      • Low brain stimulation/poor education can trigger Alzheimer's.
    • Genetic Pre-disposition to particular conditions.
      • A pre-disposition is the possibility that you will develop a certain condition.
      • A genetic pre-disposition means that you inherit that possibility from one or both of your parents but it is not a certainty you will develop the condition.
      • The genetic make-up cannot be altered but we can alter environmental factors and offer support and treatment to allow these individuals to lead a relatively healthy life.
      • Inherited conditions can have serious consequences on growth, development and life expectancy.
      • Susceptibility is an increase likelihood of acquiring a disease because of an individual's genetic  make-up.
    • Genetic Diseases
      • Haemophilia
        • Is a rare disease
          • It's a deficiency in blood which prevents it from clotting.
            • A small cut could result in losing a lot of blood
      • Down's Syndrome
        • Caused by having an extra chromosome (47 in total)
          • It affects physical features and height , short life expectancy and lower than average intelligence.
      • Cystic Fibrosis
        • Caused by a faulty gene affecting protein resulting in thick, sticky mucus in tubes.
          • Blockages damage the lungs, digestive system and other organs, resulting in inflammation (swelling) and coughing, wheezing and repeated infections in the lungs.
      • Autism
        • Autism is partly genetic but unknown, and is also very complex.
          • The severity affects language development, avoid contact and some have low intelligence.
            • However, individuals with Asperger's have high intelligence.
    • Interaction of genes and environment in development
      • Phenyl-ketonuria (PKU)
        • A genetic disorder that can be affected by the environment.
          • It prevents the breakdown of a toxic substance found in lots of different foods.
            • If aware of the condition, a special diet (environmental factor) can be given so that this problem is avoided.
              • Without detection, the toxic substance poisons and harms the body as well as causing brain damage resulting in severe learning  disabilities (delayed and arrested development)
                • Sometimes it is possible to counteract and even prevent harmful effects of biological programming by altering the environment.


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