Genes

Gene mindmap, I hope can help!

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  • Genes
    • Sections of DNA
    • Found on chromosomes
      • Humans have 23 pairs of chromo-somes (46 in total)
        • Pairs of matching chromo-somes are called homologus pairs
          • In a homologus pair both chromo-somes are the same size and have the same genes but can have different alleles
    • They code for proteins (polypeptides)
      • Contain information on how to make them
      • Made from amino acids
      • See PROTEIN CODING mindmap for more detail
    • Nature and development of organisms is determined by genes
      • DNA sequence determines amino acid sequence
        • Proteins and enzymes formed
          • Enzymes enable metabolic pathways (chemical reactions in the body)
            • Metabolic pathways determine nature and devolpment
    • Can exist in different forms called Alleles
      • Alleles code for slightly different versions of the same characteristic
        • E.G. gene that codes for blood type exists as 1 of 3 alleles: 1 for type O, 1 for type A, 1 for type B
    • Mutations can lead to non-functioning proteins
      • (changes in base sequence)
        • Incorrect active-site shape
  • E.G. gene that codes for blood type exists as 1 of 3 alleles: 1 for type O, 1 for type A, 1 for type B

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