Genes to Ecosystems Tri 1 Lect 1

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  • Created on: 28-12-19 10:46
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  • Genes to Ecosystems Trimester 1
    • Evolution and Natural Selection
      • History of Natural Selection
        • 1st: Natural Theology: Aristotle produced the scale of nature where lifeforms where like a ladder in terms of complexity
        • 2nd: Carolus Linneaus: Developed a way of classifying organisms (taxonamy)
        • 3rd: James Hutton and Charles Lyell: Fossils (organisms changed gradually). They noticed that species changes gradually overtime
        • 4th: Jean Baptitst Lammarck: Organisms could adapt to their environment. Had an incorrect theory that changes happed in individuals and were passed from generation to generation.
        • 5th: Charles Darwin: Finches co-exsisted by occupying different ecological niches = feeding behaviour. Concept of evolution: decent by modification. Natural selection.
          • 1. Principal of Variation (must be variability in a population)
          • 2. Principle of heredity. (Variation needs to be passed down through generations)
          • 3. Principle of selection. More successful individuals,
        • Evidence for natural selection
          • 1. Biogeography: organisms have evolved to suit their environment
          • 2. Fossil record: can see formation of new species (speciation)
          • 3. Comparative anatomy e.g mammalian forelimb
          • 4. Comparative embryology
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      • Principle of variation:
        • Genetic polymorphism due to changes in DNA sequence
        • Phenotypic polymorphisms
        • Mechanisms that generate variation:
          • 1. Gene Mutations
            • 2. Changes in chromosomes
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      • Principle of heredity
        • All members of a species can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
        • Group of organisms of the same species that do not have the opportunity to interbreed with another population.
      • Principle of selection
        • Organisms overreprodue
          • Best adapted outcompete others
            • Selective pressure


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