Genes and Body Plans

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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 07-12-15 10:15
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  • Genes and Body Plans
    • Control of development
      • Homeotic genes have regions - homeobox sequences
        • homeobox sequence code for proteins- homeodomain
          • homeodomain binds to specific dna sites, protein is transcription factor
            • proteins binds start developmental gene, it activates or represses, altering protein production of body plans,
    • body plan
      • proteins control development of body plan. things grow in right place. controlled by proteins coded from homeotic genes
    • apoptosis
      • programmed cell death in multicellular organisms
        • controlled by signal cells inside and out of cell EG Cytokines, hormones, growth factors, nitric oxide
          • nitric acid induce apoptosis, inner mitochondrial membrane becomes permeable to H ions, dissipating proton gradient, proteins released in cytosol.
            • proteins bind apoptosis inhibitors allowing process to take place
    • Apoptosis process
      • 1: enzymes break down cytoskeleton
      • 2: cytoplasm dense, organelles packed
      • 3: cell surface membrane changes. blebs form
      • 4: chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down, dna breaks into fragments
      • 5: cell becomes vesicles.
      • 6: vesicles taken up by phagocytosis
      • this process is very quick


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