Generalship- Warfare

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  • Generalship- Warfare
    • Napoleon
      • Was good at motivating his men. E.g Italian Campaign of 1797 and became known as the Napoleon Effect.
      • Had a positive effect on battles and only lost 6 in 20 years, (an effect like 30 men)
      • Was sole leader of the army and the nation meaning all Frances resources focused on military.
        • Good commander on the field, gave clear orders and was also big risk taker who was prepared to fight decisive battles.
      • Good commander in field and used military theorists e.g Guibert to use mixed order and corps system.
      • However- his strategic understanding started to cause him loses, failed to implement the Contienental System and took a costly war against Russia and France which left him exposed by 1812.
    • Wellington
      • Study of French tactics allowed him to learn how to defeat them.
        • 1809- spent 5 years trying to expel French from Peninsular with Portuguese army and Spanish guerillas.
      • 1815- took command of Anglo-Allied army in Brussels and retreated to slopes of Mont St. Jean
        • French tried to launch attacks against him but could not break his lines
      • Rode on horseback to encourage his men and made good use of cavalry and infantry
    • Sherman and Grant
      • Grant made lieutenant in 1864 and Sherman leader of Tennessee army
        • After years of fighting to standstill with South decided the only way to win was to attack their resources and economy
      • Sherman collected an army of 100,00 and marches into Georgia to destroy 60 miles of land. a.k.a The South Sweep
      • Grant trained at West Point and had good tactics to keep war from politics
        • Had character of endearment and politeness although not inspirational but motivated men on the battlefield with the power he had
        • possessed idea of non nonsense which is vital when commanding an army
    • Moltke
      • Used strategy to become great commander
        • Thorough planner and stated no battle plan survives contact with enemy
        • Studied the powers in Europe and planned for Prussia's future encounter with enemies
      • Allowed planning to be done at state level due to well trained officers resulting in good coordination with politicians
      • Rapid and fast efficient use of the railways benefited him as well as splitting army into 2 and deploying them at different points
    • Crimean war
      • British army went into decline after Napoleonic wars
        • Generals were ignorant and it was a surprise they even won
          • Had no idea what they were doing- never used a military book to help them
      • Charge of the Light Brigade- B of Balaclava, a attack meant to stop Russians from capturing overrun Turkish troops- mistake and forced to retreat
    • WW1
      • Not bad generals overall but failed to adapt- used Napoleonic tactics when the war could not be fought like that.
      • Although Samsonov and Rennenkampf were bad Russian generals- B of Tannenberg


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