General Studies revision-The individual and society

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  • General Studies
    • Society and the individual
      • Emotions & what you learn when young form a key part of
        • Loyalties
        • Values
        • Who you will trust later in life
      • Your responses are often emotional rather than rational
        • e.g Northern Rock
      • Society as culture
        • Culture is a distinctive way of life conducted by an entire community
        • Includes manners, dress, religion, ritual, norms of behaviour concerning law & morality and systems of belief
        • •Consider different parts of the UK and various ways they maintain their differences (income/wealth, employment, language/dialect, religion, sport/leisure)
        • Cultural Values
          • You identify with a country/place – nostalgic
          • Sense of fairness/freedom of speech
          • Unwillingness to stand idly by with injustice
          • You know inequalities in society exist (low income & poor housing & no opportunities)
          •   Some condemn materialism as selfishness
          • Optimism from religion – Protestant work ethic / Methodist ladder of opportunity
          • Change to Values
            • There is less respect for others
            • Long-standing conventions are more commonly ignored
            • People change jobs more regulary
            • Fewer people aim to live as a nuclear family
            • Workplace attitudes have radically altered
            • Spellings have changed drastically due to 'txt msge'
            • ‘Plural cities’ are starting to emerge in UK
    • Socialisation
      • Process by which we learn behaviour, values & attitudes considered appropriate
        • Learning of appropriate behaviour as a member of a smaller group (sub-culture)
      • Primary – Early childhood with the family. You learn, absorb & accept society’s culture
      • Secondary – Later when family influence is less central than school/work/leisure
    • Employment
      • Unemployment
        • Full = less than 3% unemployed
        • Frictional = caused by people leaving one job to go to another
        • Seasonal = caused by seasonal changes (e.g. fruit picking, etc)
        • Structural = caused by out-of-date working and/or technology. New investment and reorganisation are needed to solve this
      • Living standards will fall sharply in UK
        • Shortage of workers means national income from taxes etc will fall
      • Greater proportion at retirement age due to falling birth rates and death rates
        • Raising retirement age – in order to reflect increased life expectancy & bonuses for 65
      • Raising activity rates – getting women to work full/part time instead of childminding


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