Gene Techonology MM part 2

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  • Gene Technology
    • Gene Therapy - treatment of genetic diseases e.g cystic fibrosis
      • Somatic Cell - Introducing cloned normal genes into epithelial cells
        • Using Adenovirus - 1) AV made harmless by interfering with a gene involved in their replication 2) AV grown in epithelial cells with plasmids with normal gene inserted 3) Gene incorporated into DNA of AV 4) AV with gene isolated and purified 5) Introduced into nostrils 6) AV inject their DNA into epithelial cells of lung
        • Wrapping Gene in lipid molecules - 1) Normal gene isolated and inserted into plasmid 2) vectors reintroduced into host cell and gene makers used to detect which has taken up plasmid 3) Bacteria with gene cloned 4) Plasmids extracted and wrapped in lipid molecule = liposome 5)liposome sprayed into nostrils 6) liposome pass across phospholipid part of cell surface membrane.
      • Germline Therapy - replacing the defective gene in the fertilized egg (illegal!)
    • DNA Sequencing - sequence exact order of nucleotides in section of DNA
      • Sanger Method
    • Gel Electrophoresis - separate out different lengths of DNA fragments produced by DNA Sequencing
    • Restriction Mapping - Large DNA fragments that cannot be separated by gel electrophoresis and cut into smaller fragments by restriction enzymes and each fragment is sequenced. RM pieces these fragments back together to make original genome
    • DNA Probes - to identify exactly where a particular gene is located in order to diagnose and treat diseases.

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