Gender Theorists

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  • Gender Theorists
    • Robin Lakoff:
      • In 1975, produced an account of women's language claiming that women: Hedge, use polite forms, use tag questions, use direct quotations, speak less frequently and apologise more often.
    • Zimmerman and West
      • In mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt than women. In 1975 they reported that in 11 conversations men interrupted 46 times but women only  two.
    • Beattie
      • Women and men interrupted with more or less equal frequency.
    • Fishman
      • Conversation between the sexes sometimes fails, not because of anything inherent in the way that women talk, but because of how men respond, or even don't respond.
    • Tannen
      • Represents male and female language use in a series of 6 contrasts: Status Vs support. Independence Vs intimacy. Advice Vs understanding. Information Vs feelings. Orders Vs proposals. Conflict Vs compromise.
    • Trudgill
      • Detailed study in which subjects were grouped by social class and sex. Trudgill found that men were less likely - and women were more likely - to use the prestige pronunciation of certain speech sounds.
    • Coates
      • Argues that all -women conversations can fall into one of the following categories: House talk, Scandal, Bitching or  Chatting
    • Cameron
      • Says that women have been instructed in the proper ways of talking just as they have been instructed in proper ways of dressing. 'Verbal Hygiene'.


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