Gender Differences and Offending

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  • Gender issues and offending
    • Explaining female crime
      • Biological explanations
        • Women have a natural desire to be nurturing and kind - both values do not support crime
        • Yet hormonal and/or menstrual changes mean women drop these values and are more likely to commit crime
      • Sex-role theory
        • Socialisation
          • Girls are brought up not to commit crime, mothers prove as good role models which girls can aspire to
            • Others found if the parents were too controlling and didn't give the girl enough praise, girls would commit more crime
        • Social control
          • Women have a need to conform more than men, so social control is stronger over women
          • There is also more informal control on women through the media, women are expected to act "lady-like"
        • Marginalisation
          • The narrow range of roles for women to do means their chance to commit crime is limited
    • The changing liberialist theory
      • Changing female roles over the years has meant that both men and women engage in risk-taking behaviour
      • Women are now taking new roles such as the "ladette subculture" which means women are now in gangs and committing more crimes
    • Katz
      • There is pleasure is committing crime, other theories forget this
      • Doing evil is motivated by the quest for a "moral self-transcendance" in the face of boredom
      • Due to the position of women in society some feel pleasure from being emotionally and physically superior
    • Transgression: A postmodernist critique
      • The various explanations of female crime was inadequate
      • So Smart introduced the idea of transgressive criminology, she suggested that criminology was a discipline tied to men
        • What can criminology offer feminism?
          • It can tell us why women fear to go out at night
          • How domestic violence is an issue affecting 1 in 5 women during their life time
          • How women are mistreated by the law in cases of rape and sexual harrasment


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