Gender differences in achievement (external factors)

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  • Created by: charl_w
  • Created on: 18-03-15 18:20
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  • Gender differences in achievement (external factors)
    • The impact of feminism
      • Feminist ideas are more likely to have affected girls self-image/ aspirations. As a result-motivated to do well in education.
      • Angela McRobbie (1994) study. Comparison of magazines in the 1970's and 1990's.
        • 1970's magazines such as 'Jackie' emphasised importance of getting married. Whereas nowadays they contain images of assertive independent women.
          • This highlights the importance of self-esteem and personal care for young women.
    • Changes in the family
      • Increase in divorce rate- 40% of marriages end this way.
        • Increase in divorce rate may suggest to girls that its unwise to rely on a husband to be their provider. This encourages girls to look to themselves and get their own qualifications
      • More lone parent families (mainly female headed). May mean women need to take on breadwinner role, this creates a new role model for girls- the financially dependant woman.
      • Increase in cohabitation and a decrease in number of first marriages.
      • Smaller families
    • Changes in women's employment
      • 1970 equal pay act makes it illegal to pay women less than men for work of equal value.
      • 1975 sex discrimination act outlaws se discrimination in the workplace.
      • Proportion of women in employment has risen.
      • Since 1975 the pay gap between men and women has almost halved.
    • Girls changing perceptions and ambitions
      • Links to impact of feminisn
      • Sue Sharp 1994 compared 2 studies of working class girls in 1970's and 1990's.
        • In the 1970s girls priorities were: love, marriage, husbands, children and then jobs in that order.
          • They saw their future in terms of a domestic role not paid work.
        • In the 1990s, priorities had switched to careers and being independent.
      • Becky Francis (2001) found that girls now have higher career aspirations so needed educational qualifications.


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