Gender Differences - Internal and External Factors

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  • Created by: Sonal
  • Created on: 27-02-15 12:01
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  • Gender Differences
    • EXTERNAL FACTORS
      • Feminism
        • Impact on women's rights and opportunities e.g. equal pay
          • Through feminists girls now have more equal rights and therefore can do more in education therefore take advantage of this opportunity, whereas boys have always had these rights
            • Feminist ideas are likely to hace affected girl's self image and aspirations - more motivated to do well in education
        • Feminist ideas are likely to hace affected girl's self image and aspirations - more motivated to do well in education
      • Changing Perspectives & Ambitions
        • Sharpe - Compared 2 studies of 1970s and 1990s1970s - girls' priorities were love, marriage, children1990s - priorities had switched to careers and being able to be independent
        • Francis - Found that girls now had high career aspirations and so needed educational qualifications
      • Changes in Family
        • Since 1970s..
          • An increase in divorce rate
          • More lone parent families
          • Smaller families and more women staying single
        • These changes mean women have both more need and more opportunity to be economically independent - more motivation
      • Women's Employment
        • Changes in the law have improved the position of working women
          • 1970 Equal Pay Act and 1975 Sex Discrimination Act give women more employment rights
          • Since 1975 the pay gap between men and women has almost halved
        • More incentive to see their future in terms of paid work and get more qualifications
    • INTERNAL FACTORS
      • Equal Opportunities Policies
        • GIST & WISE - Programmmes to encourage girls into science & technology
        • The national curriculum - 1988 girls & boys now largely study study the same subjects
        • Meritocracy
      • Role Models
        • Female teachers provide positive, pro-educational role models for girls
        • Presence of female teachers feminises eduaction. Girls then perceive educational success as a desirable femnine trait
      • Coursework
        • Mitsos and Browne - Girls do better than boys in coursework
        • GCSEs boosted girl's exam results as a result of coursework being a major part
        • However, Elwood says exams have a bigger influence on final grades - coursework has limited effect on gender differences
      • Stereotypes In Learning Materials
        • Studies of reading schemes, textbooks etc.underrepresented females portrayed in domestic roles
        • Since 1980s, many of these sexist images have been removed - more positive images - raises aspirations
      • Teacher Attention
        • French & French - boys receive more attention for misbehaviour but, academically equal attention
        • Francis - boys disciplined more harshly & had lower expectations
        • Swann - boys domninate class discussions & girls listen and cooperate - teachers favour this
      • Marketisation
        • Competitiveness between schools - with league tables etc.
          • Girls - generally more successful, more attractive to schools
            • Girls get a better education & achieve more as a result
          • Boys - lower-achieving & more badly-behaved - 'liability students'
            • Girls get a better education & achieve more as a result
          • Radical feminsts education systems remains patriarchal e.g. heads are more likely male, sexual harassment against girls

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